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Week 2 Material

by: Michelle Venegas

Week 2 Material PSC 168

Michelle Venegas
GPA 3.47

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About this Document

This covers the Humanistic Existential Models lecture as ell as the first lecture on Assessment and Diagnosis
Abnormal Psychology
Eva Schepeler
Class Notes
abnormal, Pyschology, humanistic, Existential, Models, assessment, Diagnosis
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle Venegas on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 168 at University of California - Davis taught by Eva Schepeler in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 141 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology at University of California - Davis.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
Wednesday, September 28, 2016 6:12 PM 3. Humanistic-ExistentialModels a. Founders i. Humanistic Model:Abraham Maslow; Carl Rogers ii. Existential ideas go back to European philosophers of the 1800's & 1900's b. Principles and concepts i. Developones full potential, live in authentic self-determinedlife ii. New Definition of "psychological health" iii. Self-actualization, creativity,love, authenticity 1) Has been termed "positivepsychology" (Studying what's good for people 2) People who are depressed remember memoriesin a far darker light iv. Freedom of choice (vs. determinism) 1) Therapist helps client construct meaning of living for themselves. 2) Need to get individual to search for and find values to live for. 3) Therapist must be able to put themselvesIn clients shoes to help them form the framework. v. Take responsibility for one's life and choices 1) Important for people to not settle in to victim role. 2) Does not help people to reinforce the "victim" role. 3) People will only feel better if they have somesense of control in their lives. vi. Face fears, come to terms w/inevitability of death. vii. Establish meaning and purpose for oneself in one's life 1) Joining groups that focus on same values helps c. Carl Rogers "Client-Centered Therapy i. Non Directive approach 1) Establish repoire, but don't give advice. 2) Don't have to agree, but let them know you value them for what's on their mind, acknowledge their feelings and respect them. ii. Unconditional positive regard 1) Ex. If kid comesin upset and angry, don't yell instead say something like "Wow, what could have happened? Tell me" iii. Reflection (and validation) of feelings 1) Help acknowledgethe anger rather then tell them to calm down. iv. Active listening v. Empathy for client d. Therapy Applications i. Individuals who are inhibited or have low self-esteem ii. Individuals w/no actual skill defecit. iii. "Growth therapy" to develop one's fuller inner potential. iv. Less helpful for: 1) Emergencysituations requiring decisive action 2) Psychoticconditions and other sates of poor judgement a) i.e Trying to jump out a window, kill oneself. 4. Cognitive Models a. Basic Assumption: i. It is not what happens to us that causes us negative emotionsbut how we think about, and interpret, what happens to us. ii. Internal causal relationship (can't see the "silver lining" b. Founders i. Albert Ellis: Rational-Emotivetherapy (RET); video in lcass ii. Aaron Reck: Cognitive Therapy ii. Aaron Reck: Cognitive Therapy c. Applications of cognitive therapy, examples i. Depression (to correct negative thinking patterns ii. Many anxiety disorders (esp. GAD, social phobia, panic disorder iii. Eating disorders (e.g., to reconstruct all or nothing thinking) iv. Some personality disorders (e.g., to work on black and white thinking; reframe irrational thinking) 5. Group Models a. Advantages of Group Therapy: i. Group reduces sense of isolation ii. Emotionalsupport from group, group cohesiveness iii. Interpersonal learning iv. Practice new skills v. Education Also, cheaper than individual therapy b. Applications of group therapy, for example i. Panic disorder ii. Eating disorder iii. Substance abuse treatment iv. Anger management v. Many other disorders 6. Couples Therapy a. Aspects of couple's therapy: i. Teach clear, direct communication 1) Ex. No morecalling each other names, no more dropping "breakup" or "divorce" ii. Teach problem identification and problem solving 1) Figure out the problems, then discuss ways to implementnew problem solving methods 2) Pros and Cons of addressing issues. iii. Identify and understand mutual needs 1) Needs for physical closeness, feeling of not being heard, feeling of connectedness 2) Sometimesif people grew up differently, it may help identify why their needs are the way they are. a) Ex: Only child wants moreattention because they didn't get so much growing up. 7. Family SystemsModels a. Basic idea: i. Families are interdependent systems. b. Concepts: i. Identified patient, scapegoat, symptom barer; pathological families. 1) Ex. Dad drinks, momthinks he doesn't do enough. Dad stops drinking, takes charge, Mom is upset because no longer in charge. ii. Dysfunctional families (ex. Enmeshed and disengaged families) 1) Molest issues, no privacy, one kid is a bed wetter, abuse issues. c. Applications: i. Anxiety disorders in children (Ex. Separation anxiety) 1) Possible that mom is actually a worrier, which transfers to the child. a) "Don't worry I'll be right here when you get out" could transfer to child as something to worry about. ii. Eating disorders in adolescents iii. Acting out behavior in children 8. Socio-Cultural/Multi-CulturalModels a. Idea: b. Implications and Interventions,ex. i. Preventionof psychological disorders in the first place ii. Ealy interventions iii. Communityeducation iii. Communityeducation iv. Self-help and support groups 1) Talking to people in self-help can help people identify symptomsand possible diagnosis' v. Understanding the meaning of the symptomsw/in a cultural context 1) Understand what it means. 2) What is "hearing voices" in their culture 3) Need to put yourself in the frameworkif you want the patient/peopleto work with the western system. 4) So many cultural and language obstacles. 9. Bio-Psycho-SocialModel: a. Integration of the various approaches 10. Diathesis-StressModel: a. Psychologicaldisorders result from a combinationsof predispositions that meet w/ stress factors i. Examples:Hear voices. Eating disorder. Anxiety. Assessment and Diagnosis Wednesday, September 28, 2016 7:25 PM 1. Intake Assessment a. Reasons For Referral and Assessment i. "What brought you here?" ii. Find out "chief component" iii. Ask questions - "How's your sleep?" "Have you been eating okay?""Are you working?" "Do you concentrateokay?" etc; b. History of current problem i. Precipitants, stressors,symptoms,duration of symptoms,etc. ii. Ex. Q's: "What caused current episode?" "Has this happened before?""Have you ever been on any medicationfor this?" "What was the reason for the first episode" c. Client Social History i. Current living situation/maritalstatus/employmentstatus/financial circumstances ii. Examples - Small number of serious relationships, don't stay long at job --> Figure out if person had problems w/ committing. d. Family History i. History of abuse - physical, sexual ii. Psychiatric history 1) Maybe parents or grandparents have history of depression/psychosis/bi-polar e. Legal history i. Have a right to their records ii. Maybe it's something with child custody or DUI or in the middle of law suit. f. Support Network i. Ask about any friends or family ii. A part of a church or outside support group iii. Any other agencies? g. Medical and psychiatric History i. History of medical illness (surgeries, past diagnosis) ii. Psychiatric History inpatient/outpatienthistory. Treatment?) 1) If they don't know maybe ask about rumors or characteristicsof said family members 2) Be very "Matter-of-fact" iii. All current medications(including dosage, effectiveness,side effects) h. Substance abuse history i. Assess for each substance and when substancec was last used (including alcohol, coffee, cocaine, marijuana, prescription drugs, etc;) 1) Don't be judge mental ii. Ask about any formeralcohol/drug treatment 1) Self-diagnosed over the counter and/or under the counter d i. Diagnostic Impressions (DSM-V diagnosis) j. Recommendations 2. Mental Status Exam a. General Appearance and behavior i. Grooming (neat, unkept, odiferous, etc;) 1) Mark notes how they look/smell. 2) Also make sure you look put together otherwisecould defer ppl. ii. Facial expression (happy, tense) iii. Activity level (overactive,underactive) 1) Could be iv. Posture (erect, relaxed, slouched) iv. Posture (erect, relaxed, slouched) v. Gait (natural, stiff, shuffling) vi. Mannerisms (tics, grimacing, tremors( vii. Attitude (friendly, aloof, hostile, dramatic) b. Characteristics of speech i. Speech (soft, loud, stuttering) ii. Quality (coherent,vague, rambling) iii. Rate (even, slow, pressured, rapid) iv. Content (clear, flight of ideas, rhyming, neologisms,circumstantial. c. Affect and Mood i. Affect (appropriate, depressed, flat, labile) ii. Mood (cheerful, anxious, sad, angry) d. Characteristics of thoughts i. Content (ideas of reference, obsessions, phobias, fantasies, grandiosity) ii. Paranoid Ideation iii. Delusions iv. Hallucinations e. Orientation i. Are they oriented to place, time, self ii. Consciousness (clear, clouded confused) f. Memory(impaired/unimpaired) i. Immediate ii. Recent Past iii. RemotePast iv. Attention Span v. Concentration g. Intellectual Functioning i. General intelligence (average, above, below) ii. Judgement (good, some, poor) h. Insight i. Awareness of illness (Aware, limited, denies) 1) Are they aware? How aware? ii. Motivationfor treatment(yes, no, ambivalent) iii. Knowledge of illness (symptoms,medications,side effects) i. Somatic (Vegetative")Symptoms i. Appetite 1) Increase, decrease, no change 2) Any weight change? How many lbs? j. Suicidality i. Ideation? (in present, in past, current plan?) ii. History of attempts (when, how, why) iii. Current suicide risk? 1) Have the planned it out? k. Homicidality i. Ideation? (present/past/currentplan?) ii. History of attempts 1) When, how, why iii. Current homicide risk? 1) How often do they fantasize? 2) Have it planned out? a) Know direct details? 3. Main Data CollectionMethods in Clinical Practice a. Clinical (diagnostic) Interview w/ Client i. Are they making sense? Coherent sentences, follows logical thoughts. i. Are they making sense? Coherent sentences, follows logical thoughts. ii. Keeps a normal timeline, not flying all over the place (one minute says he's been like this forever, next minute says he's never been like this) b. Behavior Observation


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