New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Anatomy Physiology of the Speech Mechanism; Semester Notes

by: Olivia Kozody

Anatomy Physiology of the Speech Mechanism; Semester Notes CDS 288LEC

Marketplace > University at Buffalo > CDS 288LEC > Anatomy Physiology of the Speech Mechanism Semester Notes
Olivia Kozody
GPA 3.9
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Anatomy Physiology Speech Mechanism

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Anatomy Physiology Speech Mechanism notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

Notes from the course semester
Anatomy Physiology Speech Mechanism
Deborah Matheron
Class Notes




Popular in Anatomy Physiology Speech Mechanism

Popular in Department

This 87 page Class Notes was uploaded by Olivia Kozody on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDS 288LEC at University at Buffalo taught by Deborah Matheron in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.


Reviews for Anatomy Physiology of the Speech Mechanism; Semester Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/03/16
Anatomy and Physiology of the Speech Mechanism Unit 1: Overview 1. Phases of Speech Production 1. Respiration: airflow is “fuel”, Egressive 2. Phonation: sound produced at level of larynx (buzzing sound) 3. Resonation: nose, mouth, pharynx (superglottal) 4. Articulation: articulators shape airstream for speech (lips, teeth, tongue) *All phases work synergistically 2. Parts of Body Associated with Speech o Lungs o Trachea o Larynx (primary resonator) o Pharynx “ o Nasal Cavity “ o Oral Cavity 3. Requirements for Speech Production 1. Source of Energy: smooth airflow 2. Vibrating Element: vibrating vocal folds primary sound 4. General Components of Speech Mechanism 1. Respiratory System 1. Lungs to trachea, ends at vocal folds 2. Power supply, pressure, and airflow 2. Laryngeal System 3. Level of vocal folds 4. Takes airflow and converts to sound 3. Supraglottal System 5. Cavities in nasal and oral and pharynx 6. Modifies sound into specific speech 5. Anatomical Position 1. Directions of Orientation 1. Frontal: divides front and back (vertical) 2. Transverse: upper and lower (horizontal) 3. Sagittal: right and left (vertical) 6. Anatomical Terms 1. Anterior: toward the front 2. Posterior: toward the back 3. Ventral: toward the abdomen 4. Dorsal: toward the back 5. Superior: toward the top 6. Inferior: toward the bottom 7. External: toward the outside 8. Internal: toward the inside 9. Proximal: toward the body 10. Distal: away from the body 11. Medial: toward the middle 12. Lateral: toward the side 13. Afferent: toward the nervous system 14. Efferent: away from the nervous system 15. Cranial: toward the head 16. Caudal: toward the tail 17. Superficial: close to surface 18. Deep: close to inside Unit 1: Muscles  Function of Muscles  Contract  Lengthen  Produce tension  Initiate movement, or inhibit movement  Types of Muscles  Smooth (visceral)  Involuntary movement  Striated (skeletal)*  Voluntary movement  Parts of Muscle  Belly: middle of muscle  Origin: stationary  Insertion: moving toward origin *Origin and Insertion are where muscles are attached  can change based on job  Types of Movement  Flexion: making of angle  Extension: straightening of limb  Connective Tissue  Tendons  Non-elastic cords, closely packed  Muscle to bone  Aponeuroses  Extended tendon  Flat sheet of connective tissue  Ligaments  Like tendons, but a little elastic  Bone to bone  Cartilage  Connective tissue  Firm, elastic, can change with age  Bone  Dense connective tissue, elastic  Types of Contractions  Isometric Contraction  Length constant, tensions changes  Ex) carrying grocery bags on arms  Isotonic Contraction  Muscles changes length and produces movement  Miometric: concentric  tension rising to meet restriction  Plyometric: eccentric  muscle lengthening due to resistance being applied greater than tension  Muscle Functions  Synergy: muscle groups work together to create movement  Prime Movers: muscles responsible for creating movement  Antagonist: counteract prime movers  Fixation muscles: keep body in particular positions Unit 1: Physics of Motion  Force  Force = mass x acceleration  Equilibrium (force balanced)  Acceleration/Deceleration (change in velocity)  Elasticity  Distortion  Apply and Release Force  Perfectly Elastic  must return to natural shape  Inelastic  doesn’t return to original shape  Recoil Force  Recoil: internal energy must be expended to complete the restoration from the distortion  Remove force from elastic object  When an elastic object is stretched from its natural position, it will exert a force to return to that natural position  Energy  Ability to do work  Potential Energy: ability for something to do work, but isn’t doing it yet  Kinetic Energy: movement of energy Unit 1: Respiratory Skeleton  Skeleton  Function:  Shape  Protect  Support  Divisions:  Axial (central axis)  Appendicular (appendages)  Vertebral Column/Vertebrae  Humans have 32-33 vertebrae  Moveable vertebrae  Cervical: 7  Thoracic: 12  Lumbar: 5  Sacral (fuse): 5  Coccyx (fuse): 3-4  Thorax  Skeletal Thorax  “rib cage” composed of thoracic vertebrae, ribs (costal), costal cartilage, and sternum  Houses viscera  Internal organs in main cavities of the body  Protect, support, respiratory functions  Cavity of the thorax is a space!  Sternum  Manubrium: attaches clavicle, most superior  Corpus (Body)  Xyphoid Process flexible cartilage  Rib Cage  True Ribs (connected to sternum): Pairs 1-7  False Ribs: Pairs 8, 9, 10  Floating Ribs: Pairs 11, 12  Diaphragm’s rest position is dome  Clavicle  AKA Collar Bone  Position in body: superior to 1 rib, superior in anterior position  Scapula  Position in body: posterior aspect of body  Coxal Bone  AKA Hip Bone  Composed of:  Ilium: “winged” portion  Ischium: bones you sit on  Pubis Unit 1: Muscles of Inspiration Make the Thoracic Cavity Larger  Quiet Breathing  2 Groups of Inspiratory Muscles  Major Muscles  Minor Muscles (accessory muscles)  General Function of Inspiratory Muscles  Enlarge the thoracic cavity (vertical, transverse, & antero- posterior dimensions)  Ex) diaphragm  Result: negative air pressure in the lungs causing air to flow in  Body enlarges  then air flows in  Major Muscles of Inspiration  1. Diaphragm  Origin  Front of sternum- xyphoid process  Lower 4-5 ribs  Parts of lumbar vertebrae- lower 4  All the way around thoracic cavity  Insertion  Central tendon: center of the muscle; runs throughout diaphragm  Function  Muscle fibers shorten and flatten diaphragm  Increases vertical dimension of thorax  Rest = domed up  Tensed = moves down  More on Diaphragm  Lower border of pulmonary system  Dome-like structure, flattens when contracts  Separates thoracic cavity from abdominal cavity  Only mammals have a diaphragm  Diaphragm isn’t derived from same nerve innervation as abdomen and rib cage  cervical innervation “C 3, 4, 5 keep you alive”  Interaction Between Diaphragm and Abdomen During Inspiration 1. Diaphragm flattens 2. Abdominal contents down and out 3. Abdominal wall out  2. External Intercostal Muscles  Origin  Lower edge of an upper rib  Insertion  Into upper edge of rib immediately below  Function  Expand thoracic cavity  First rib is fixed, pulls up on rib below  Ripple effectndn ribs  Pulls up on 2 rib first  Accessory Muscles of Inspiration  Remainder of muscles play a role in forced inspiration  All help enlarge size of thorax  Secondary role to diaphragm and intercostals  1. Sternocleidomastoid Muscle (paired)   Main Muscle Function Speech Function of Muscle Origin Medial third of clavicleMastoid process of skull manubrium of sternum Insertion Sweeps upward and Medial third of clavicle, inserts mastoid process manubrium of sternum Function Flex neck When head is fixed, contraction results in the elevation of the sternum & clavicle resulting in the elevation of the rib cage  2. Scalenous Group (paired) *Most important muscle group for forced inspiration Main Muscle Function Speech Function of Muscle Origin Cervical vertebrae, Same scalenous anterior, medius, posterior Insertion 1 rib at top (anterior & Same medius) 1 & 2 ndrib at top (posterior) Function Bend neck ventral- When neck is fixed, laterally contraction of each muscle elevates the rib it is attached to therefore elevating the rib cage  3. Subclaveous (Paired) “Below clavicle” Main Muscle Function Speech Function of Muscle Origin Juncture of cartilage Underside of clavicle and bone on rib 1 Insertion Underside of clavicle Juncture of cartilage and bone on rib 1 Function Pull clavicle forward If clavicle fixed: may aid inspiration by st elevating 1 rib  4. Pectoralis Major Main Muscle Function Speech Function of Muscle Origin Manubrium, portions of Humerus clavicle, ribs, and sternum Insertion Humerus Manubrium, portions of the clavicle, ribs, and sternum Function Bring arm to medial When humerus is fixed, part of body contraction  5. Pectoralis Minor (paired) *deep to pectoralis major Main Muscle Function Speech Function of Muscle Origin Cartilage of 2 3 4 5 6 Scapula rib at the costal- chondral joint Insertion Sweeps upward and Cartilage of 2 3 4 5 6 inserts into scapula rib at costal-chondral joint Function Pulls scapula forward When scapula is fixed, contraction of the muscle elevates the 2 -d 6 ribs  6. Serratus Posterior-Superior Main Muscle Function Speech Function Origin Lower 2 cervical, upper Same 2 thoracic vertebrae Insertion Downward short Same projections to insert ribs below 2-5 ribs Function Elevate ribs Same  7. Latissimus Dorsi (Paired)   Main Muscle Function Speech Function of Muscle Origin Lower 4 or 5 thoracic Humerus of arm and upper lumbar vertebrae, along center of back Insertion Sweeps up & converges Lower 4 or 5 thoracic & finally inserts on and upper lumbar humerus of arm vertebrae, along center of back Function Rotate back or pull Raise rib cage by back on arm elevating vertebrae  8. Serratus Anterior Main Muscle Function Speech Function of Muscle Origin Lateral portion of ribs Front of scapula 1-8 or 9 Insertion Fibers pass backward Lateral position of ribs around the side of the 1-8 or 9 rib cage where they converge & insert into the front of the scapula Function Fixates and protracts When the scapula is the scapula fixed, contraction of the muscle results in elevation of the upper ribs  9. Levatores Costorum (Paired) Main Muscle Function Speech Function of Muscle Origin Vertebral column Same Insertion Into rib immediately Same below Function Help rotate body; low Contraction of the impact on inspiration muscle pulls up on the rib it is inserted into & helps elevate the rib cage Unit 1: Muscles of Expiration  General Location of Expiratory Muscles o Between ribs o Ventral aspect of abdomen o Abdominal cavity is enclosed by vertebral column posteriorly and by the coxal bones  General Functions o Produce movement opposite to respiration o Produce compressing force on abdominal wall o (Indirectly) Decrease size of thoracic cavity, pull down rib cage o Will compress abdomen, push up on diaphragm, decrease size of thorax o Compress volume of air o Pressure raised o Air will flow out  Model of Abdomen o Bag of water example:  Incompressible mass  Compress one side, displacement is compensated elsewhere  Push ventrally, cranial part moves up & in  Push from cranial side, ab moves up & out  Interaction Between Diaphragm and Abdomen during Expiration o Contracts muscles of abdomen wall o Abdominal contents in & up o Diaphragm up  Major Muscles of Expiration  Internal Intercostals o Origin  Upper border of one rib o Insertion  Lower border of the rib immediately above o Function  Pull upper rib down relative to lower rib  Compression of thorax and decrease size of thoracic cavity  Decrease vertical, antero-posterior, and transverse dimension of thoracic cavity  Accessory Muscles of Expiration o Contraction during forced expiration (speech, singing, loud voice)  1. Rectus Abdominus o Encased in fibrous sheath formed by the abdominal aponeurosis Main Muscle Function Speech Function of Muscle Origin Costal cartilage of ribs Coxal bone 5-7, xyphoid process, sternum Insertion Runs down to coxal Costal cartilage of ribs bone 5-7, xyphoid process, sternum Function Compress rib cage due to attachment to ribs & sternum; compress abdominal contents, push diaphragm up; decrease vertical dimension  2. Transverse Abdominus Main Muscle Function Speech Function of Muscle Origin Bottom 3 ribs, parts Same of xyphoid process, parts of pelvic girdle Insertion Broad flat tendon same (abdominal aponeurosis) surrounding abdominal wall Function Compresses abdominal contents; pushes diaphragm up head-ward into thoracic cavity; decrease size of cavity in vertical dimension  3. Internal Oblique Main Muscle Function Speech Function of Muscle Origin Coxal bone Same Insertion Ribs & aponeurosis, Same fans out, complete insertion Function Rotates torso to same Compress abdominal side of muscle contents  4. External Oblique Main Muscle Function Speech Function of Muscle Origin Lower border of ribs 5- Ilium of pelvic girdle & 12 on each side abdominal aponeurosis Insertion Ilium of pelvic girdle & Lower border of ribs 5- abdominal aponeurosis 12 on each side Function Rotate torso, rotate Compress abdominal spinal column to contents in certain opposite side postures, push diaphragm up  Abdominal Aponeurosis o Fibrous, tendinous sheath connecting to muscular and bony structures o Sheath joins all abdominal muscles o Very complex, folds in and out o Ventrally: abdominal aponeurosis o Dorsally: lumbodorsafacia Unit 1: Introduction to the Brain  6 Major Divisions of the Central Nervous System (CNS) o Spinal cord o Medulla o Pons o Midbrain o Diencephalon (thalamus & hypothalamus) o Cerebral Hemispheres (from caudal to cranial)  Spinal Cord o Most caudal part of the CNS o Receives sensory information from the body, relays to brain o Sends out motor commands from brain to muscles for movement  Medulla Oblongata o Rostral (toward head) extension of the spinal cord o Merges with the brain o AKA the “bulb” o Function: regulates respiration, phonation, heartbeat, & blood pressure  Pons & Cerebellum o Rostral to medulla o Pons: center for rhythm of respiration, regulates facial movements and sensation o Cerebellum: dorsal, is attached to brainstem but not part of it; modulates force and range of movement, balance  Midbrain o Lies rostral to pons between hindbrain and the forebrain o Visual reflexes  Brainstem- Medulla, Pons, Midbrain o Mediate a lot of functions o Receive information from skin, muscles of head o Information from senses of hearing, balance, taste o Control motor output to muscles of face, neck, & eyes o Major place of crossing over information  Diencephalon o Contains:  Thalamus- processes info reaching cerebral cortex from rest of CNS (major transfer station)  Hypothalamus- regulates autonomic, endocrine, visceral integration; control center for hormones  Cerebral Hemispheres o Basal Ganglia: important role for regulating motor activities o Cerebral cortex o Both are concerned with higher perceptual cognitive and motor functions o Joined by corpus callosum (largest bundle of nerves, connects hemispheres)  Cerebral Cortex o The cortex of each of the 2 hemispheres is divided into lobes:  Frontal  Parietal  Occipital  Temporal o The lobes are specialized in function  Frontal Lobe o Planning and movement o Site of primary motor cortex (homunculus); regulates fine & graded movements of arms, legs, & face o Contains premotor cortex; controlling articulation of speech, hand & finger movement and eye-hand coordination o Prefrontal cortex:  Personality, regulation of cognitive functions, reasoning, abstract thinking; self-monitoring, decisions making, planning, executive decisions, and pragmatic behaviors o *Executive Function, motor planning o Broca’s Area: motor planning for speech o Pre-Central Homunculus  Motor area- precentral gyrus  Relative allotment of cortex to various muscle groups on the opposite side of the body  Parietal Lobe o Somatic control & sensation o Mediates sensory innervation from somatic muscles, skin, ligaments, & joints o Sensory information comes into parietal lobe o Post-Central Homunculus  Somasensory- post-central gyrus  Relative allotment of cortex to sensory information on the opposite side of body  Again, area of cortex devoted to complex tasks greater  Greater “real estate” in cortex, the more sensorimotor abilities it has. E.g. fingers have more area than legs  Occipital Lobe o Vision: visual cortical areas  Temporal Lobe o Hearing & Receptive language (Wernicke’s area), analysis & elaboration of speech sounds, verbal memory, perception of music & environmental sounds o Learning, memory, & emotion o Olfaction- sense of smell  Cranial Nerves o 12 paired cranial nerves exit brainstem- course through head, neck, & parts of thorax o Nerves are sensory, motor, or mixed o Each nerve serves a specific location  Synapses o Nerve cells communicate via electrical and chemical signals o Synapse is the location where 2 nerve cells meet o Nerve cells do not touch at the synapse. They transmit signal across a space called the ‘synaptic cleft’ Unit 1: Pulmonary System  Gross Structure o Respiratory airways o Lungs o Boundaries:  Cranial- vocal folds  Caudal- diaphragm  Overview of Respiratory Airways o Lower airway  Larynx  Trachea  Bronchi  Alveoli- oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange  Trachea o Semi-rigid tube o 16-20 C-shaped cartilage o Extends: C6-T4 or T5 o Posterior membranous wall of trachea o Anterior wall of esophagus o  Lungs o Major structure of respiration o Conical shape; spongy elastic material o Mediastinum space (opening) o Right & left sides o Volume of air:  Total lung capacity: Men- 6.5 Liters; Women- 5.8 Liters  Rest breathing = 500cc (cubic cm)  1000cc = 1 liter  Pleural Linkage o Visceral pleura  Inside; coats lungs o Parietal pleura  Outside; coats inside of thoracic cavity o Pleural space  Middle; within space is thin, watery substance that sticks 2 pleurae together; reduces friction on organ o Intrapleural pressure is negative  Pneumothorax o Lung collapses  The Lung-Thorax Unit is an Elastic Structure o Lung is an elastic structure; Rest = collapsed state o Thorax is an elastic structure; Rest = expanded position o When an elastic object is distorted, it will recoil to rest position  Recoil force is proportional to distorting force o Lungs & thorax find a balance point mechanical rest position o General Rule: any time one exerts a force to move an object, that object will exert a recoil force Unit 1: Thoracic Expansion Expand thorax to expand lungs- pleural linkage Thorax expands, pressure lowers, air flows in  How Does Thorax Expand? o 3 dimensions of thoracic expansion  Vertical, antero-posterior, transverse o Can increase in anyone or more dimensions simultaneously  Vertical Dimension o Contracting diaphragm vertical expansion o Distance between top of diaphragm & fixed point on sternum o Diaphragm flattens sternum moves up  Antero-Posterior o Raise rib cage o Ribs move outward o Sternum moves outward  Transverse o Elevate rib cage o Ribs rotate slightly around their axis *Simultaneous dimensional changes occur Unit 1: Air Pressure  Pressure o Pressure = force/unit area (P=F/A) o Ex) body weight spread over shoes in the snow  Boyle’s Law o Pressure in a closed container changes if:  1. Temperature changes  2. Number of molecules increase or decrease  3. Volume changes  Volume & Pressure are Inversely Related o Large volume = less pressure o Smaller volume = more pressure  Water Pressure o U-tube manometer (calibration device) o Atmospheric pressure = 0 o Positive pressure = above atmospheric o Negative pressure = below atmospheric o Balance in tube when there is no displacement  Pressures in the Pulmonary System o Alveolar pressure (P alvair pressure in the lungs o Pleural pressure (Ppl- pressure in the pleural space  Negative pressure suction o Abdominal pressure (P )abpressure in the abdomen  General Concepts o Exhalation: air flows out of lungs o Inhalation: air flows into lungs o Pressure gradient (pressure difference)  Need for air movement to happen  Between atmospheric and alveolar pressure o Air flows from regions of higher pressure to regions of lower pressure o Change “container” for air to move air doesn’t move on its own  Relationship between Volume, Pressure, & Flow in the Pulmonary System o Definitions and abbreviations:  V = volume  LV = lung volume  P = pressure  V = flow  Flow o Flow is how much volume changes over a period of time (1 derivative) o 2 factors:  Volume change  Time period over which a change occurred (liters/sec, ml/ms) o Flow is proportional to pressure differential  Volume, Flow, & Pressure Change during a Rest Breathing Cycle o Shows:  Amount of air in lungs (LV)  Rate of change of lung-volume flow (V ) o  Alveolar pressure (P )alv o Resting Expiratory Level (REL)  Alveolar pressure = atmospheric pressure (because no flow) o Inhalation (airflows into lungs- ingressive)  Alveolar pressure < atmospheric pressure o Exhalation (air flows out of the lungs- Egressive)  Alveolar pressure > atmospheric pressure  Time Point 0 Seconds o Beginning of inspiration o Alveolar pressure is atmospheric o No pressure differential o Volume not changing o Flow is 0 o Pressure is 0 o Flow changes from outward to inward  Time Point 1 second o During inhalation:  Volume increases  Alveolar pressure drops below atmospheric pressure  Negative alveolar pressure  Changes in flow follow that of pressure  Negative flow, ingressive  Time Point 2 seconds o Volume at its maximum o Volume exchange from inspiration to expiration o Alveolar pressure = 0 o Flow = 0  Time Point 3 seconds o Volume is decreasing o Alveolar pressure is at maximum o Flow is maximum  Time Point 4 seconds o Cycle starts again  Back to REL Unit 1: Partitions of Lung Volume  Equipment Used for Measuring Volume o Spirometer, digital spirometer, wet spirometer o Respirometer o Important reference point: End Expiratory Level (EEL): at end of rest expiration  Four Primary Lung Volumes o Tidal Volume (TV): regular breathing o Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) o Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) o Residual Volume (RV)  Can change across lifespan  Air you can’t access dead air space  Four Lung Capacities (combo of 2 or more volumes) o Inspiratory Capacity (IC): amount of air you can take above EEL o Vital Capacity (VC): amount of air someone has access to o Functional Residual Capacity (FRC): amount of air in ERV & RV, everything below EEL o Total Lung Capacity (TLC): all volumes in lungs  Vital Capacity o Lung volume in terms of % VC o 100% VC = lungs full o 0% VC = bottom of ERV o REL located between 35-40% VC Unit 2: Passive Forces (In regards to lung-thorax unit)  Forces Applied to Respiratory Mechanism o Passive: due to inherent elastic properties of the tissue o Active: due to muscular influence  Passive Forces o Non-muscular forces o When an elastic object is distorted away from its rest position, the object will exert a (recoil) force to rest position  Inhalation to exhalation o Recoil forces generate relaxation pressure (recoil pressure)  Pressure generated when respiratory muscles are relaxed o Relaxation (recoil) pressures are air pressures o Involuntary o *Note:  Any volume of air above Eel  Expansion distortion  Recoil air pressures are positive  Any volume of air below Eel  Compression distortion  Recoil air pressures are negative Unit 2: Passive Characteristics of the Lung-Thorax Unit o Energy: the ability to do work o Kinetic Energy: the energy of a moving mass (realized energy)  Energy during recoil o Potential Energy: force is stored by the object  PE depends on position of an object  Various positions have different degrees of PE  Object at rest = no PE  Greater distortion from rest position greater magnitude of PE furthest from EEL  Summary- General Rules o If object is distorted from its rest position, the direction of recoil is opposite from the distorting force o Recoil force will increase as an object is further distorted  Theoretically Unlink Lungs & Thorax o Unlinked Lungs: 0% VC o Unlinked Thorax: 55% VC o Lung-Thorax unit:  Linked: rest at about 35- 40% VC o Net influence of unlimited lung & thorax characteristics  Spring Analogy o A. Rest Position of Lungs- collapsed o B. Rest Position of Thorax- expanded o C. Rest Position of Lung- Thorax Unit- in between o D. Distorting Force- stretching and compressing o E. Recoil Force is opposite to distorting force  Remember… o Re-link lung & thorax and they will be in equilibrium at 35- 40% VC  Relaxation Pressure Characteristics of Lung-Thorax Unit o Relaxation pressure as a function of lung volume o Technique for acquiring pressures:  Inhale/exhale to various lung volumes  Lean against closed tube  Relax (relax muscles, recoil takes over) o X-Y Plot  X-axis: pressure  Y-axis: % VC  General Observations from Figure o At lung volume ABOVE EEL  Compressing recoil force  Positive relaxation (air) pressure  Higher lung volume yields higher relaxation pressure o At lung volume BELOW EEL  Expanding recoil force  Negative relaxation (air) pressures  Lower lung volume yields high (negative) relaxation pressures  Analogous Terms o Relaxation o Passive o Recoil  Relationship Between Passive Forces & Pressure at Various Lung Volumes o Consider stretch &/or compression of the lung & thorax at particular lung volume o EEL = 0 cm H O2 o Above EEL = positive air pressures (b/c of expansion force) o Below EEL = negative air pressures o Examples:  At 95% VC: strong compression force high positive relaxation pressures  At 55% VC: positive relaxation pressure  At 35% VC: 0 relaxation pressure  At 25% VC: negative relaxation pressure  At 5% VC: strong expansion force high negative relaxation pressure Unit 2: More on Generation of Relaxation Pressures  Remember… o Relaxation pressure is a term used to describe the alveolar pressures that are generated from the elastic recoil of the lung-thorax unit  4 Paired Dome-Like Structures o Located at points along relaxation pressure curve  1. Domes at high lung volume  2. Domes at 55% VC  3. Domes at EEL  4. Domes at 20% VC  5. Domes at 5% VC o Outer dome: represents thorax o Inner dome: represents lungs o Arrow: direction of passive recoil; length of arrow indicates relative recoil force  Look at the Figure… o Relaxation pressure = 0 at EEL o Positive above EEL; greater as LV increases o Negative below EEL; greater as LV decreases  WHY?? o Relaxation pressures are predictable when considering the distortions of the lung-thorax unit which occur at various lung volumes  Summary o Relaxation pressures are non-muscular forces exerted by the lung-thorax unit o Forces are a function of elasticity o Rest position is at EEL o Net force at EEL = 0 o Net force above EEL = (+)  causes expiration o Net force below EEL = (-)  causes inspiration Unit 2: Active Forces  Active Forces o Muscular Influences o Active contraction of:  Expiratory muscles: generate “expiratory” pressures  Inspiratory muscles: generate “inspiratory” pressures  Muscular Pressures o Compressive & expansive forces can be generated in respiratory system through muscular activity o Muscular pressure will be superimposed on relaxation pressures b/c relaxation pressure always present o Simultaneous passive & active forces o Net effect o *muscle and recoil work in tandem  Developing Maximum Pressures o Empirical data collected from subjects o Various lung volumes o Blow or suck with maximum effort o Closed tube o Greatest expiratory o Greatest inspiratory  Volume Pressure Diagram o Abscissa: pressure (x-axis) o Ordinate: % VC (y-axis) o Maximum expiratory pressure & maximum inspiratory pressure o Combined influence of passive & active forces  Muscular Contribution o Assumed to reflect the greatest possible exertion of force by a group of muscles o Muscular component volitional; passive component not volitional  Volitional: power of willing; voluntary Unit 2: Compliance of Respiratory System  Higher maximum expiratory pressures can be developed at high volumes than at low lung volumes  Assumptions o Relaxation pressure increases as lung volume increases o Same compression force at each lung volume on part of expiratory muscles?  If Pm ability is same at all lung volumes, then Pe will follow Pr  Difference between Pe & Pr would be the same at all lung volumes  But, the difference between Pe & Pr is not the same… o Pressure someone can inspire greatest significantly below EEL o More difficult to distort from rest position than from an extreme  Why? o The response of the thorax to a given applied muscular force varies as a function of lung volume o The response depends on the degree to which the thorax is compressed o Even though the applied muscular forces are identical you will not be able to compress the thorax as much at low lung volumes  Mechanical Compliance o “Ease of distortion” of the thorax at various lung volumes o High compliance at rest o Low compliance when fully distorted o Reduction in thoracic compliance as lung volume decreases, results in decrease in compression & decrease in Palv  Volume Pressure Relationship for P i o Most negative P alvcan be generated at low lung volumes o P iollows P r o Changing compliance of lungs o At rest, very compliant, easy to distort o Can generate high (-) P alv  At high lung volume, fully displaced from rest, very distorted, not easy to distort further o Less compliant  So, lungs more difficult to expand at high LV  Can’t generate high (-) P alv  Summary o Two factors account for volume-pressure relationship  Pe, Pi follows Pr  Compliance of thorax  Compliance of lungs Unit 2: Respiration for Speech  Main Task of the Respiratory System o Maintain constant alveolar pressure during speech  Otherwise, spikes at beginning and then trails off  During Speech: o Decreasing lung volume o Ps must stay constant o Flow stays constant o Relaxation pressures change o Oscillation of the vocal folds require 3cm H2O o Balance forces (active & passive) to maintain constant Palvacross lung volume o Compensate for decrease in Pr  General Speech Task o Sustain vowel o Inhale to 100% VC  General Rules o When relaxation pressure is greater than subglottal pressure demand, use inspiratory muscular force to prevent lung-thorax unit from collapsing so fast (more pressure than what we need) o When relax pressure is less than subglottal pressure demand, use expiratory muscular force to increase rate of collapse of lung-thorax unit (lower than what we need)  When you increase sound pressure level (SPL), you increase Ps o Different intensities  Soft utterance = 3cm H2O  Normal utterance = 7cm H2O  Loud utterance = 18cm H2O o Above relax line inspiratory; below active expiratory Unit 2: Draper, Ladefoged, and Whitteridge (1959)  A Classic Investigation o Technique: electromyography  Direct info on muscle activity o Basis of technique: muscle generates electrical activity o Classic view on how respiratory system functions during speech (some parts are wrong!)  Electrodes o Surface  Advantage: noninvasive, disadvantage: unsure of multilayer muscle o Needle/Hook  Advantage: accurate, disadvantage: invasive o Disadvantages: certainty of testing specific muscle o  Measured From o Diaphragm: internal electrodes o External intercostals: deep electrodes o Internal intercostals: deep electrodes o Rectus Abdominus: surface o External obliques: surface  Also Monitored o Lung volume o Subglottal pressure  Pressure generated right below vocal folds  On Subglottal Pressure (Ps) o Vocal folds don’t vibrate unless air stream passes through o Relatively constant pressure o Threshold pressure o P alvis the same as Ps  Want to Measure Ps o Tracheal puncture o Esophageal balloon o Estimate Ps through P eso o Pleural pressure?  Draper et al., Findings (Preliminary Findings) o Checking action: when Ps demand is < Pr  Recoil pressure generates more pressure, control recoil by using inspiratory muscles slower descent of rib cage o External intercostals longer interval checking  Main muscle of checking o When Ps = Pr then no muscles active o When Pr is less than Ps demand, internal intercostals are active o Below EEL, accessory muscles of expiration become active; internal intercostals stay active o Abdominal muscles are minimally important for speech o Below EEL, use expiratory muscles to continue speech  Problems with Study o Measuring P eso weren’t actually measuring P eso o Sampling abdominal muscles: transverse ab (didn’t sample surface electrodes) o Sampling intercostal muscles (only sampled 1 set between 1 set of ribs on 1 side) o Sears and Newsom Davis  Hixon, Goldman, & Mead (1973, 1975, 1976) o Technique: respiratory dynamics o Pressure balloons  Esophagus, stomach (to decide what the diaphragm was doing) o Information on muscular contraction o Overall force in parts of respiratory system o EMG gives incomplete info, but gives specifics o Most findings similar to Draper et al.  Findings o Diaphragm not important for checking o Ab muscles constantly contracting o Rib cage muscles never “turn off” o So, Draper et al. data is incorrect  Abdominal muscles on  Inspiratory & expiratory on at same time  P isn’t P , it’s P eso alv pl  Why Do Abdominal Muscles Contract During Speech? o Diaphragmatic tuning  Muscle of expiration active to increase abdominal pressure moving diaphragm up to be at optimal positioning o Maintaining alveolar pressures  Especially right around EEL Unit 2: Respiratory System Efficient Biomachine  1. Mid-lung Volume Range o Speech: 35-60% VC  Most efficiency about 20% above EEL o Mid-lung volume range o Maximum efficiency with minimum effort o Use diaphragm, external intercostals, and maybe scalenous group o Why is mid volume efficient?  Mechanism takes advantage of relaxation pressures  Don’t do as much work  Little checking action  Expiratory passive force working in same direction as active force  Forces not opposing each other  Below EEL?  Activate expiratory muscles to continue subglottal pressure works against recoil  During high SPL?  take advantage of recoil  During low SPL?  2. Diaphragmatic Tuning o Diaphragm at optimal o Physiological rest length of muscle fiber (ex, diaphragm- domed)  To maintain, contract ab muscles little bit  3. Maintain Thoracic Resistance o Making sure chest wall stays efficient for recoil  4. Opposing Muscles Overlap o Where subglottal pressure crosses over & overlaps recoil pressure  Inspiratory muscles still activated as expiratory muscles start  What We Manipulate During Speech o Volume solution  Bellows with a spring o Pulsatile solution Unit 2: Effects of Gravity on the Respiratory System  Directions of Movement o Upright position  Inspiration  Thorax: expansion  Abdomen: down & out  Expiration  Thorax: returns to mechanical rest position  Abdomen: up & in  Effects of Gravity o Upright  Gravity acts more on…  Thorax: expiratory  Abdomen: inspiratory o Supine (gravity not assisting us)  Thorax: expiratory  Abdomen: expiratory o EEL shifts  Supine o EEL changes from 35-40% VC (upright) to 20-25% VC (supine) o Relationship between EEL & relaxation pressure characteristics stays about the same (0cm H2O occurs at EEL) o Mid lung volume range = 20% above EEL (20-45% VC)  Another Effect o Upright: abdominal muscles are contracted during speech o Supine: abdominal muscles aren’t contracted during speech o Because… gravity acts on abdomen in expiratory direction  Also Remember o During rest breathing:  Inspiration is an active process  Expiration is a passive process o Means there is muscular effort to inspire, but not to expire  Examples of Spinal Cord Lesions & Their Effect on Breathing o 1. Spinal lesion at level of thoracic vertebrae  All expiratory muscles would be paralyzed  Inspiratory forces would be intact (diaphragm, scalene, sternocleidomastoid)  Inspiratory muscles will compensate for lack of expiratory muscles  Inspire to higher than necessary lung volume o 2. Thoracic spinal transection where all muscles are paralyzed except for diaphragm  Happen high in cervical vertebrae o 3. Total paralysis of respiratory system  Gravity is used to keep patient alive o Christopher Reeve  Injured in horseback riding accident May 1995  Shattered top 2 vertebrae (C1, C2)  Fused together & then fused to skull base  Released from hospital December 1995  Could breathe up to 15 minutes without respirator Unit 2: Respiratory Kinematics Hixon, Goldman, & Mead (1976): First real study looking at respiratory kinematics for speech  Found: o Not a lot of variability on non-speech tasks (ex. Tidal volume, VC maneuver) o Subjects performing the same speech task:  A lot of variability as to how subject accomplished volume change  Some would change LV by moving rib cage  Some would change LV by moving abdomen  Relative volume contribution (RVC)- sum of lung volume change o When engaged in conversational speech:  Speech between 40-60% VC (mid-volume range)  Speech produced on expiration on positive pressure  Apparatus takes advantage of recoil pressure  At high SPL, high Ps, best mechanical advantage  At low SPL, go to low LV, where low recoil o Subjects use the most efficient lung volume range for a particular speech task  High, low, whisper, connected speech, syllable  Abdominal Muscles Contract o To “platform” the chest wall (chest wall platforming)  A particular posture of abdomen is prior to rib cage  Puts muscles in position so they can contract to produce rapid compressions and expansions needed during speech  Smooth transition Unit 2: Respiratory Kinematics in Profoundly Hearing- Impaired Speakers  Forner and Hixon  Problem: o Inappropriate use of the respiratory system has been suspected as one major factor contributing to speech & voice disorders in profoundly hearing impaired individuals  Subjects o 10 male students at National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) in Rochester o Congential, bilateral, sensorineural hearing loss o Unaided better ear loss from 500-2000Hz greater than 96dB hearing loss  General Procedures o Equipment: linearized magnetometers o Nonspeech: calibration, tidal breathing, VC o Utterances:  Phonate /a/, normal & loud  Phonate /papapapapa/ normal & loud  Phonate /hahahaha/ normal & loud  2 minute spontaneous conversation  Short story  Numerical strings  Loud readings  Results o Volume contribution of rib cage exceeded that of abdomen- ike normal speakers (use more rib cage than abdomen) o Tidal breathing- within normal limits o Normal vital capacities  Frequent Deviations o Linguistic programming o Mechanical adjustments of respiratory origin o Mechanical adjustments of larynx  Linguistic Programming o Failure to follow normal conventions of phrasing  Short stretches of speech  Only a few syllables  Broken by inappropriate pauses  Pauses long  Mechanical Adjustments of Larynx o Valving the air stream inefficiently during speech performance  Air wastage  Using a lot of air for short task  Mechanical Adjustment of Respiratory Origin o Inconsistency of starting levels of lung volume o Air expended during pauses o Wide variation in magnitude of expiratory excursions o Excursions larger than normal, smaller than normal o Initiated expiratory limbs within tidal volume range or lower  Breathing out below EEL o Terminated at LV well into functional residual capacity (below EEL) o Used higher than normal muscular pressures o Worked against recoil forces o Didn’t go to high LV for loud speech Unit 3: Laryngeal Anatomy  General Anatomical Facts o Framework of Larynx  Cartilages  Elastic membranes  Mucous membranes (unifying) o Structures outside larynx  Hyoid bone (above trachea)  Trachea  Posterior View of Laryngeal Framework o Hyoid bone o Epiglottic cartilage o Trachea o Trachea rings o Thyroid cartilage o Cricoid cartilage o Arytenoid cartilages o Corniculate cartilages o Cuneiform cartilages  Orientation to Interior of Larynx (posterior view, fronta ) o Aryepiglottis folds o Ventricular folds/false vocal folds, diplophonia/ventricular phonation o True vocal folds o Ventricle of morgagni o Glottis o Cricoid cartilage o Thyroid cartilage Glottis o Opening between vocal folds o Membranous border o Cartilaginous border  Cartilage most medial Hyoid Bone o Horse-shoe shaped bone  Greater horn  Lesser horn  Body or corpus o Larynx is suspended from hyoid bone o Hyoid bone is not part of larynx o Superior border o Horn = cornu Laryngeal Cartilages o Nine principle laryngeal cartilages o 3 single  Thyroid, cricoid, epiglottis o 6 paired  Arytenoid, corniculate, cunieform Thyroid Cartilage o single, largest cartilage o Laminae o Superior thyroid notch o Laryngeal prominence  Angle: 90-degree male, 120- degree female o Superior cornu o Inferior cornu o Cricothyroid joints o Bilateral thyroid articular surface  Epiglottic Cartilage o Unpaired, single cartilage o Thin & leaf-shaped o Deflect food from trachea during swallow o No speech function  Cricoid Cartilage o Single, unpaired o Signet ring o Caudal end of larynx o Lamina o Arch o Bilateral arytenoid articular surface  Arytenoid Cartilages o Paired, bilateral cartilages o Superior edge of posterior cricoid cartilage o Cricoarytenoid joints o Attachment to vocal ligaments vocal folds are attached to superior edge of posterior cricoid o Pyramidal in shape o Apex and base o Muscular process o Vocal process where ligament attaches  Cuneiform Cartilage o Paired, bilateral o Small, rod-like bodies o Aryepiglottic folds o Not relevant for speech o Embedded in tissue of aryepiglottic fold  Corniculate Cartilage o Bilateral paired o Lie at apex of arytenoid cartilage  Laryngeal Ligaments o Connect laryngeal cartilage to other cartilages & to each other o Allow movement of laryngeal cartilages at laryngeal joints o Motion is essential for:  Opening & closing glottis  Determining shape of glottis  Determining tension of folds o Connect to more stable structures  A. Extrinsic Ligaments o Attaches to laryngeal structure & structure outside larynx  At least one connection point outside larynx o 1. Hyothyroid membrane o 2. Median hyothyroid ligament o 3. Lateral hyothyroid ligament o Cricotracheal ligament  Hyothyroid Membrane o Superior aspect of thyroid o Inferior most part of hyoid bone  Median Hyothyroid Ligament o Part of hyothyroid membrane  Lateral Hyothyroid Ligament o Connect hyoid bone to triticial cartilage  Cricotracheal Ligament o Connects cricoid to first tracheal ring  B. Intrinsic Ligaments o Connect laryngeal cartilages, allows freedom of movement  Both connection points to laryngeal cartilages o 1. Conus elasticus o 2. Cricothyroid articular capsule o 3. Ceratocricoid ligaments  Anterior, lateral, posterior o 4. Posterior cricoarytenoid ligament o 5. Anterior cricoarytenoid ligament  Conus Elasticus o Connects: thyroid, cricoid, & arytenoid cartilages o Start at cricoid cartilage, coats up cricoid cartilage & thyroid & stops at true vocal folds o 2 parts:  Middle cricothyroid ligament  Cricothyroid membranes o Cricothyroid membranes terminate in free borders of vocal folds o Vocal ligament part of conus elasticus, layer within vocal folds  Ceratocricoid Ligaments o Hold the thyroid cartilage to the cricoid cartilage (holds joint in place) o Senovial joint  Cricothyroid Articular Capsule o Where the inferior cornu of thyroid cartilage sits  Posterior and Anterior Cricoarytenoid Ligament o Keeps things in place  Movements at Laryngeal Joints o Motions at cricothyroid & cricoarytenoid joints (hinge- like) o Soft tissues move into positions for different modes of phonation o Cartilages move in ways that the joints permit  Types of Joint Movements o Gliding movement  Move laterally of medially o Rocking movement  Toward or away from glottis o Probably done at the same time  Cricothyroid Joint o Contact of thyroid & cricoid cartilages o Inner surface of inferior cornu of thyroid cartilages & corresponding fact on cricoid cartilage o Held together by cricothyroid articular capsule & ceratocricoid ligaments o Rotation around a horizontal axis o Important for phonation, frequency changes o Arytenoid cartilages coupled to cricoid cartilages o Cricoid convex facet o Arytenoid concave facet  Gliding Motion of the Cricoarytenoid Joint o Gliding  Slides along long dimension of facet o Glide laterally in or medially out  Rocking/Rotary Monition of the Cricoarytenoid Joint o Rocking/rotary motion  Rotation of arytenoid cartilage around axis of joints  Toward or away from vocal folds  Abduction & Adduction of Cricoarytenoid Joint o Abduction  Slides along long dimension of facet o Adduction  Slides along long dimension of facet Unit 3: Laryngeal Muscles  Extrinsic Muscles of the Larynx o Extrinsic: origin or insertion is outside the larynx, but other end inside larynx  A. Suprahyoid Muscles o Laryngeal elevators o All play important role for deglutition (& swallowing) o Above hyoid  1. Digastric Muscle o Paired, 2 fleshy bellies o Anterior  Origin: inside surface of lower border of mandible  Insertion: intermediate tendon o Posterior  Origin: mastoid process of temporal bone  Insertion: intermediate tendon o Function: raises the hyoid bone, elevates base of tongue, elevate larynx or depressing the lower jaw  2. Stylohyoid Muscle o Paired o Origin: styloid process of temporal bone o Insertion: body of the hyoid bone o Function: draws hyoid bone up & back  3. Mylohyoid Muscle o A thin, paired sheet of muscle which forms the floor of the mouth o Origin: mylohyoid line o Insertion: mid-line raphe, hyoid bone, floor of mouth, tongue o Function: elevate hyoid bone with mandible fixed o Superior to digastric  4. Geniohyoid Muscle o Superior to mylohyoid o Paired muscle located superior to mylohyoid muscle o Origin: lower mental spine at mandibular symphysis o Insertion: anterior surface of the body of hyoid bone o Function: pull hyoid bone up & forward  B. Infrahyoid Muscles o Support hyoid bone from below o Strap muscles of the neck o All paired o Below hyoid bone  1. Sternohyoid Muscle o Origin: sternum, parts of clavicle o Insertion: body of hyoid bone o Function: sternum fixed- hyoid downward, hyoid fixed- elevate sternum  2. Omohyoid Muscle o Long, narrow, 2 bellied muscle situated on antero- lateral surface of neck o Posterior belly  Origin: upper border of scapula  C. Other Extrinsic Muscles o Support the larynx, one from above, one from below  1. Thyrohyoid Muscle o Bilateral muscle o Origin & Insertion interchangeable  Thyroid lamina & runs up to the hyoid bone to the greater cornu  2. Sternothryoid o Paired muscle o Origin st  Sternum at level of 1 rib o Insertion  Lower part of the thyroid lamina; is a continuation of thyrohyoid muscle o Function: pulls down on thyroid cartilage; so pulls down on whole larynx  Intrinsic Muscles of the Larynx o Both origin and insertion within the larynx o Affect shape of glottis (how open or closed) o Affect vibratory


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.