LING 1, week 1 notes
LING 1, week 1 notes LING 1
Popular in Introduction to Study of Language
Popular in Linguistics
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Goffney on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LING 1 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Torrence in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 123 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Study of Language in Linguistics at University of California - Los Angeles.
Reviews for LING 1, week 1 notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/03/16
10/3/16 th DISCLAIMERS: Thesthreferenths are based off the 9 edition, but the information works for both 9 and 10 editions regardless. Please DO NOT copy this for your own homework or notes. The Human Brain p.44 Brain – most complex organ. It has: o Cortex – surface of the brain (“gray matter”). Is the decision making organ of the body. Holds the grammar representing our knowledge of language. o Right and left cerebral hemispheres, the right hemis controls the left side of the body, and visa versa. This function is called a contralateral brain function. Both are connected by the corpus callosum (allows the two hemispheres to communicate with the other) Localization of the Brain p.45 o Neuro-linguistics: study of brain mechanisms/anatomical structures underlying ling competence and performance. o Joseph Gall proposed localization in early 19 cent. Most of his ideas are wrong (ex: phrenology) but his thought that linguistic capacities are functions of localized brains areas has been supported Aphasia: neurological term for any lang disorder resulting from brain disease or trauma. Studying those with Aphasia led to many advances. p.46 o 1860s, Paul Broca claimed lang is localized on the left hemisphere frontal lobe, or “Broca’s Area”. o 1870s, Carl Wernicke claimed lang localized also on the left hemis temporal lobe, or “Wernicke’s Area”. o Thus, lang is lateralized (localized to one hemis only) on the left hemisphere. o Broca’s Aphasia: affects lang production. Inefficient ability to form sentences. Lang produced is agrammatic (lacking grammatical elements). Have problems with syntax. These aphasics (aka agrammatic aphasics) also can’t comprehend complex syntactic structure. (ex: the cat chased the dog. Fail to understand who did the chasing.) o Wernicke’s Aphasia: affects lang comprehension. Inefficient ability to name objects, choose words when speaking. Often produce nonsense words. Have probs with semantics. Severe Wern Aphasia aka jargon aphasia. o Both Aphasia’s support theory of modular organization (parts of lang processed by diff neural mechanisms) of lang in the brain. Aphasics prove that neural connections exist between semantics and phonetics (tool and pool, sable and table) Similar to acquired dyslexics (became dyslexic after brain damage) o We all experience Tip-of-the-Tongue Phenomenon, but aphasics with severe ammonia rarely can find the word they wish to speak. o Aphasic deaf signers show similar lang deficits to hearing aphasics. Brain Plasticity and Lateralization in Early Life p.54 o Lateralization of lang happens very early in life. o In youth, phonological and syntactic processing are automatic reflexes. o Even if a young child undergoes a hemispherectomy (one hemis is removed), they experience little aphasia and reacquire normal lang progress quickly. Thus, even if the left hemis (lang hemis) is removed, the right hemis quickly fills in for the missing hemis in young children. Right hemis seems to play big part in early lang development o However, a left hemispherectomy for an adult means severe lang loss. Split Brain p.55 o Those with severe epilepsy have their corpus callosum cut, ending communication b/w the hemispheres. The two hemis become independent, and messages result in diff responses, depending on which side receives message. Other Experimental Evidence of Brain Organization p.56 o Dichotic listening: experimental technique using auditory signals to observe brain behavior. Subjects frequently correct in naming words, syllables, and other linguistic stimuli heard through right ear. Subjects freq. correct in hearing musical chords, sounds, and other nonverbal stimuli heard through left ear. Contralateral (opposite side) stimuli are processed more robustly than ipsilateral (same-side) stimuli b/c they don’t need to cross the corpus callosum o Researchers also investigate perceptual and cognitive info and measure event-related potentials (ERPs), which brain emits in response to stimuli. Ex: ERP diffs happen in hearing speech vs nonverbal sounds. Jabberwocky sentences (grammatically correct sents with nonsense words) also trigger ERP in left hemis. The Autonomy of Language p.58 o Some children suffer from specific language impairment (SLI) – affects certain aspects of grammar. Strikes even though they aren’t retarded, autistic, and lack perceptual problems. Can run in families Struggle with verbal inflection, syntactic stuctures. Resembles aphasic problems. Ex: “meowmeow chase mice”; “show me knife”; “it not long one” Other Dissociations of Language and Cognition p.59 o Savants: those who are gifted with talent, but lack ability to care for themselves. Genetic Basis of Language p.61 o Turner syndrome: normal lang and advanced reading skills, but major nonlinguistic cognitive deficits. o Williams syndrome: certain ling functions relatively preserved despite visual and spatial cognitive deficits and moderate retardation. o Klinefelter syndrome: selective syntactic and semantic deficits, but intact intelligence. Language and Development p. 62 The Critical Period: lang is acquired easily, w/o external interruption. p.62 o Start learning at birth – need exposure to lang to develop normally. o Late lang exposure affects the fundamental organization of brain for lang. o Critical age hypothesis: lang is biologically based, ability to learn lang develops in fixed period, usually birth to mid childhood. o Kids who missed their critical period show patterns of brain lateralization. Usually never acquire the grammatical rules of English. Lang lateralizes to the right hemis for them b/c of inadequate ling stimulation. Ex: Genie, didn’t learn lang until age 15. Critical Period for Bird Song p.65 o Song acquisition occurs in many stages o A chaffinch can’t learn new song elements after 10 months of age. o Must not be isolated from other birds in order to develop song correctly o Some birds must be able to hear themselves sing in order to learn. o Shows us that basic nature of human lang is innate, but the details of it are acquired.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'