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Chapter 4: Periodic Trends

by: Elizabeth Notetaker

Chapter 4: Periodic Trends CHEM 120

Elizabeth Notetaker
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These notes cover all of chapter 4, contain all clicker questions and questions posed in class, and will be very useful to use for studying!
General Chemistry
Class Notes
periodic, trends, reactivity




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Notetaker on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 120 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Hilesheim in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
Chem 120 Chapter 4 Electrons always start at the lowest energy level and move up. • • Hund’s Rule: sets of orbitals have equal electrons • Always add electrons one at a time when filling orbitals. • Maximize the spin THEN double them up. QUESTION: What is the condensed electron configuration for oxygen? 2 2 4 O=1s 2s 2p • When you are at a noble gas, you are at a completely filled electron shell. • Aufbau Principle: electrons build up from the lowest to the highest • Noble gas notation: [Ne] 2s 2 FAMILY (GROUP) PERIOD • Exceptions to electron configuration rule: Cr, Mo, Pd, Cu, Ag, Au, Pt These are all one electron from either a fully filled or half filled electron shell, so they lose an electron from their s block and gain one in their d block. • Positive ion: remove an electron, has a positive charge, moves to the left on the periodic table • Negative ion: gains an electron, has a negative charge, moves to the right on the periodic table • isoelectronic: equal number of electrons • To predict charges, figure out how many electrons are gained or lost to get to the nearest noble gas. If the closest one is to the left, it gets a positive charge because it loses electrons. If the closest one is to the right, it gets a negative charge because it gains electrons. QUESTION: What would be the charge of Sn? -3 • Families NORMALLY behave the same way in a reaction because they all need the same number of electrons to reach noble gas configuration. • What about C? It can go either way!! C can gain or lose four electrons to reach noble gas configuration. • You can only gain or lose VALENCE ELECTRONS!! Chem 120 Chapter 4 QUESTION: What flavor of electrons do chemistry? Valence electrons • valence electrons: electrons in an incomplete shell (not filled with 8 electrons yet) • core electrons: electrons in a complete shell (filled with 8 electrons) • Columb’s Law: something positive is attracted to something negative—the positive ion will lose energy and the negative ion will gain energy • Lewis Dot Diagram: represents an element’s valence electrons with dots • diamagnetic: all paired electrons • paramagnetic: some unpaired electrons QUESTION: Is N paramagnetic or diamagnetic? paramagnetic • It is harder to predict electrons in the d block. • atomic radius: the larger the electron cloud, the larger the radius Atomic radius ultimately controls all of the rest of • the trends. • Because positive and negative attract, the more protons and neutrons you have, the more compacted the element is. • ionic radius: cations=smaller atomic radius than original element anions=larger atomic radius than original element QUESTION: -1 Which is larger, N or N ? N because an electron is added and there are less positive forces (protons) attracting negative forces (electrons). • increasing nuclear charge = decreasing ionic radius size • ionization energy (IE): energy associated with removing an electron • It is difficult remove an electron from a noble gas. QUESTION: What would be the predicted ionic charge for Mg? +2 Chem 120 Chapter 4 QUESTION: Which would be the largest radius: C, N, O, F? C QUESTION: Which would have the largest atomic radius: C , N , O , F ?2- 1- C 4- • The highest IE is with the noble gases because it takes the most energy to remove their electrons. • The larger the radius, the less IE needed to remove an electron. • The more electrons you try to remove, the harder it is to remove them (more IE is needed). • There is a HUGE increase in IE if you break an octet. QUESTION: Predict the group in the periodic table in which an element with the following ionization energies would most likely be found. IE 1: 786 IE 2: 1577 IE 3: 2323 IE 4: 4335 IE 5: 16,901 Group 4 because it loses 4 electrons. • When predicting groups based on IE, make sure to skip the d block! • electron affinity (EA): energy released when an electron is added—orbital will expand because more negatives repel each other • Metals have low EA and nonmetals have high EA. • The smaller the atomic radius, the higher the EA because there is a higher attraction between positive and negative charges. • Group 1A (alkali) tend to form 1+ cations. • Group 2A (alkaline earth) tend to form 2+ cations. Atoms in the same family share the same properties. • • Transition metals have VARIANT charges. Halogens (F,Cl, Br, I, At) tend to form 1- anions. • • Ion formation can be predicted by the element’s location on the periodic table. • METALS form CATIONS. • NONMETALS form ANIONS.


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