Wildlife Week 5 Notes
Wildlife Week 5 Notes ENWC 201
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sophie Menos on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENWC 201 at University of Delaware taught by Dr. McCarthy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Wildlife conservation & Ecology in WIlldlife Conservation and Ecology at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
History of Wildlife in N.A. 10/3/16 3:56 PM Before Man • mega fauna – large animals o 3 species of elephant o horses o camels o giant bison o giant ground sloths o “car sized” tortoise o lions o short nose bear o saber tooth tiger o jaguars o large scavengers • 11,500 - ice age – people move across Bering land bridge Pre-European Era • lasted 10,000 years – 11,500 to 1500 • the Clovis o people of pre-European era o hunter gatherer society • Pleistocene Overkill o able to kill fauna easily and use them as sustenance o human overexploitation of mega fauna o take away giant prey, take away giant predators o Clovis disappear over few hundred years • Native Americans o agrarian society o large societies o live off the land, so large amounts of lands • Columbus/early explorers o bring over diseases that North Americans don’t have genetic immunity because they weren’t exposed o 95% population killed by disease o allows Europeans to easily move in to N America Era of Abundance • 1500 - 1850 • abundance of wildlife o planes thick with bison – 60,000,000 o streams choked with salmon o 400,000,000 ducks o new giant animals never seen before § manatee – 27 feet long 14K lbs o parrots (Carolina Parakeet) o Passenger Pigeons • King James Genesis 1:28 view of nature o ”Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the Earth, and subdue it, and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth on Earth.” o man is above nature o lead to era of overexploitation Era of Overexploitation • 1850 – 1900 • overuse of resources • Helped by two inventions o railroad – drastic improvement in efficiency of transportation of goods § open trade routes specifically for wildlife o telegraph – communication • Passenger pigeons o food resource § abundant § easy to capture § cheap food for slaves § 1914 – Martha last passenger pigeon died in Cincinnati Zoo • Bison o land expansion o army killed bison because Native American food resource during war o tongue – delicacy o leather – useful for machinery belts o hide – useful for clothing • Carolina parakeet o pest to our crops • market hunting – killing wildlife for use as a commercial resource • millinery trade – fancy hats for women o overexploitation of aves for their feathers • bounty system o predators are bad because they hurt us and go after what we need o kill predators for money • Species lost forever o Passenger Pigeon o Carolina Parakeet o Stellar's Sea Cow o Labrador Duck o Heath Hen o The Great Auk o The Hawaiian Rail • as species disappear, people start to notice and… o game commissions are formed o wardens are hired o some states create bag limits • Henry David Thoreau o “I take infinite pains to know all the phenomena of spring, for instance thinking that I have here the entire poem, and then, to my chagrin, I hear that it is but an imperfect copy that I possess and have read, that my ancestors have torn out many of the first leaves and grandest passages, and mutilated it in many places. I should not like to think that some demigod had come before me and picked out some of the best stars. I wish to know an entire heaven and an entire earth” Era of Protection • 1900-1930 • Lacey Act 1900 o limits trade of illegal wildlife across state lines o stops interstate commerce in feathers • Teddy Roosevelt o represented outdoorsmen – core group of people that were the most concerned about wildlife o the Golden Age in Conservation § tripled size of national forests § created first forest service ú Pelican Island § 84 million acres as oil and coal reserves § millions of acres as national monuments § beefed up enforcement § created more National Parks • Gifford Pinchot o trained abroad o appointed head of forest service o coined term Conservation § we can still use resources, but not so much that future generations cant do the same o “sustained use” • John Muir o “preservation” § some resources we don’t want to ever touch o Sierra Club § conserve Yosemite and the neighboring valley Hetch Hetchy Era of Game Management • 1939 – 1966 • Aldo Leopold o the father of wildlife management o report of the Committee on North American Game Policy o first professor of Game Management o “an intelligent humility toward man’s place in nature” o “to keep every cog and wheel the first precaution of intelligent tinkering” • New awareness o other creatures protected o parks more restrictive o maintain healthy ecosystems • Funding o Pittman‐Robertson Act of 1937 § tax on guns and ammunition § tax has to go back to states for wildlife conservation o Dingell‐Johnson Act of 1950 § authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to provide financial assistance for state fish restoration and management plans and projects § tax on boats supports fish conservation Era of Environmental Management • 1966-1979 • increased awareness • Endangered Species Act • first Earth Day 1970 • Dozens of Acts o safe drinking water act o clean water act o clean air act o toxic substances control act Era of Conservation Biology • 1980 – present • Conservation Biology o book published in 1980 that sparked era of conservation bio • Alaska National Interest Lands Act o 101 million acres to National Parks • Ronald Reagan o anti-environmental o despite this progress was made • Awareness o Human populations are still climbing at an exponential rate o The atmosphere is warming o Tropical and temperate rainforests are being cut at alarming rates o Serious pollution is much more prevalent than admitted previously • recognition = the chance to remedy • Overexploitation 10/3/16 3:56 PM Disease 10/3/16 3:56 PM Habitat loss 10/3/16 3:56 PM Invasive Species 10/3/16 3:56 PM Pollution 10/3/16 3:56 PM Climate Change 10/3/16 3:56 PM Greenhouse effect Sun absorbed into Shortwaave earth surface radiation greenhouse bonces back gasses in atmosphere greenhouse gasses penetration slowly re- some bounces emitted as off/some heat absorbed as amt increases, more bounces back, climate warmer Cretaceous CO2 earliest time period high levels CO2 in atmosphere - humid, warm, wet environment (shallow seas, no ice, a lot of earth surface covered by ocean) - anoxic (low 02) - limestone deposits remove C, cooler climate What happened to Cretaceous plants/plankton fossil fuel oil coal act as a trap for C, level in atmosphere decreases Asteroid hits Earth - CO2 levels rise - dinos dead - mammals rise What replaced Cretaceous plants - tertiary trees Tertiary Climate - poles covered in ice and snow - 40K scale ice ages - last one 10k ago - current scale 100K years now - humans Industrial Rev - 150 years ago, drive economy with fossil fuels (plankton/plants) - coal – power plants - carbon – cars - cut down trees and burn them - Slash/burn ag beneficiary to planting new things but release C - greenhouse effect - 30% increase in gasses since IR - global temperature rises (amount increasing is increasing) Global Temperature - rise in sea level - N hemisphere snow cover Change Ahead - Temperature generally increasing effects on wildlife 1. Loss of species and habitat large impact on coral reefs range of tolerance and ability to adapt play big role in how well species survive climate change 2. Time shifts (onset of spring) – when vegetation first flowers, when amphibians breed, bird migration, fish laying eggs – change at different scales Ex winter oak earlier, winter moth earlier, pied flycatcher same time – no more moths to eat, big dieoffs 3. Space shifting Ranges of species shifting north/south as areas get warmer/cooler Ex warmer, less ice for polar bears, brown bears further north – Brown bear/polar range closer together – polar/brown hybrids - Ice glaciers receding rapidly ice fields turning into lakes Grinnell Glacier will be gone 2020-2025 all glaciers gone in Glacier National Park gone in next 150 years ice melts – lower albedo – absorbed sunlight- increase temp of water – more melting – more absorbing – constant loop effects on wildlife 1. Freshwater storage loss 2. Habitat loss polar bears, seals, arctic animals 3. Flooding rapid melting, rapid flooding - Precipitation increase/decrease effects on wildlife 1. Increase: Flooding habitats destroyed by water 2. Decrease: Droughts no food, habitat, water – Lake Mead – CO, dry by 2021 (Vegas source of H2O) habitats destroyed no more water 3. Erosion 4. Habitats and species loss - Sea level generally increasing ice melting off land mass, contribute water into oceans thermal expansion, water is getting warmer IPCC 2013 report at least 26-82 cm increase depending where you are effects on wildlife 1. Direct loss of land 2. Storm flooding 3. Salt water intrusion. 4. Erosion 5. Loss of habitat/species result of loss of land, storm flooding, salt water intrusion, erosion - Ocean acidification generally increase oceans absorb CO2 becomes carbonic acid calcium in plankton bound up, they dies off, no food for the rest of the food web Extinction of Species 10/3/16 3:56 PM Overexploitation market hunting Anthropogenic causes of extinction 1. Overexploitation 2. Habitat degradation 3. Introduced species 4. Disease 5. Climate change Types of Extinction 1. Ecological: populations are at such low density; no longer interact, no longer able to reproduce 2. Local: species lost on only an area or region 3. Global: all of earth - some can lead to others - cascade effect - Ex: sea otters. 17thcentury overexploitation for fur, niche is predator of urchins, sea otters went extinct, urchins pop exploded and destroyed all the kelp, urchins extinct b.c. no kelp to eat - some can have larger effect than others - dominant species: common, large effect - Ex: deer, remove from forest, forest will drastically change and so will the animals that live there - keystone species: greater impact than expected - Ex: wolves return to Yellowstone, eat elk and deer control populations, vegetation return, other species return that eat said vegetation (moose) Species most vulnerable 1. Rarity 2. Narrow range 3. Large are requirements 5. Low reproduction 6. Specialization BAD LUCK Patterns 1. What - International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resource (IUCN) - red list – systematic list of international threatened species - range from…least concern ------ extinct 2. Where - tropical areas highest level of endangerment - populations of humans growing the most - most deforestation - US second in the world after Ec
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