New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Intro to Environmental Science Notes Week 4

by: Samantha Estis

Intro to Environmental Science Notes Week 4 EVR 1001

Marketplace > Florida State University > Natural science > EVR 1001 > Intro to Environmental Science Notes Week 4
Samantha Estis

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Lecture notes, typed, for September 20, 2016
Introduction to Environmental Science
Dr. Rob Spencer
Class Notes
Introduction to Environmental Studies, Energy, Electromagnetic Radiation, balance, atmospheric circulation patterns
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to Environmental Science

Popular in Natural science

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Estis on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EVR 1001 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Rob Spencer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Environmental Science in Natural science at Florida State University.


Reviews for Intro to Environmental Science Notes Week 4


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/03/16
Environmental Science Lecture 9/20/16 Energy:  Capacity to do work  Cannot be created nor destroyed  Can be converted from 1 form to another  Kinectic Energy: energy of motion  Potential Energy: positional, energy in chemical bonds, energy in electromagnetic radiation (light), energy in matter itself First law of thermodynamics – total amount of energy in the universe is constant Systems within the Universe can gain or lose energy Electromagnetic radiation:  Light  Travels at seed of light (186,00 miles/s)  Amount of energy carried by the wave is determined by its wavelength  Full range of wavelengths is called electromagnetic spectrum Heat energy:  Kinetic energy of moving molecules  Temperature: average kinetic energy of a collection of molecules  Heat is transferred by: - Conduction: direct transfer of heat - Convection: warm (less dense) regions of a gas or liquid rise - Radiation: matter loses heat by radiation, producing electromagnetic energy - Latent heat transfer: heat transfer associated with phase transitions (melting, freezing, evaporation, condensation) Latent heat transfer: water boils and releases to gas, releases energy Convection: mixed up and down Radiation: look at stove, see heat red/blue Conduction: pot is touching stove with direct heat Types of Energy:  Chemical energy: potential energy associated with the formation or breakage of bonds between atoms  Photosynthesis: converts electromagnetic radiation (sunlight) into chemical energy (sugar)  Nuclear energy: energy contained in an atom’s nucleus  E = mc^2: Energy = mass x Speed of light^2  Nuclear fission: splitting the nucleus  Nuclear fusion: combining two nuclei Earth’s Energy Balance:  Most of Earth’s energy is derived from electromagnetic radiation emitted by the sun (also some geothermal energy)  Like all objects, Earth radiates energy back into space (primarily as infrared)  The electromagnetic radiation emitted by the earth and sun are both examples of black body radiation P = standard deviation(T)^4 The energy emitted by an object varies with the objects temperature of all planets in the solar system  Energy entering and leaving earth is almost balanced - Slight imbalances will lead to temp increases or decreases  What causes imbalances? - Changes in amount of energy reaching Earth - Changes in amount of energy the Earth radiates back out  Greenhouse Gases: clear to visible light (the light coming from the sun) but absorb long-wave radiation (the heat given off by the Earth) - Water vapor (H2O) - Carbon Dioxide (CO2) - Methane (CH4) - Ozone (O3)  Albedo: reflectivity of an object - Percent of light that gets reflected back - Earth’s overall albedo = about 30% - Fresh Snow: 80-90% - Sea ice: 50-70% - Clouds: 40-90% - Forest: 10-20% - Ocean: < 10% - Asphalt: < 10% Why are some parts of Earth warm and other parts cold - Sun’s rays strike different parts of Earth at diff angles - Sunlight reaching tropical regions arrives nearly perpendicular to the surface, leading to very direct sunlight - Sunlight reaching polar regions arrives at very oblique part Atmospheric Circulation  The Seasons are caused by this phenomenon and the fact that the Earth is tilted (23.5 degrees) relative to its orbit around the sun  The mid-latitudes receive about three times more solar energy in summer compared to winter  For polar regions the differences are even greater  In polar regions, the outgoing long-wave (heat) radiation is greater than the incoming short-wave (solar) radiation  In tropical regions, the outgoing long-wave radiation is less than the incoming short-wave radiation  So why don’t poles keep getting colder and tropics getting warmer? Fluid motions transport heat around globe  Density – mass/volume - Density is usually constant for solids - But density can change significantly for fluids (liquids and particularly gases)  Density is altered by changes in temperature and pressure - Increased temp = increased density If warming and cooling were only forces at work on stationary planet, we would expect atmospheric circulation pattern on the right The Earth spins… A spinning planet exerts an apparent force known as the Coriolis effect The ocean retains heat more than land - At night the ocean is (typically) warmer than land - During the day it is (typically) cooler - So sea breezes flow from sea to land during the day Storms - Areas of surface heating will lead to rising air - Rising air must be replaced by air from the surrounding areas - Rising air cools, causing humid air to condense - Condensing air leas to cloud formation and potentially precipitation Hurricanes: (tropical cyclones) – rotating masses of warm humid air  Condensation of humid air in the hurricane leads to release of latent energy  The heat from this latent energy release is converted to wind energy  Formation and sustenance of hurricanes requires hot oceanic water Ocean circulation  Surface currents (wind-driven circulation) - Rapid - Highly variable  Deepwater flow (thermohaline circulation) Wind driven circulation - Wind transfers some of its energy to the ocean through friction - But the Coriolis effect turns the water  Gyre: large system of rotating ocean current  The North Atlantic Subtropical gyre flows clockwise between NA, Europe, and Africa  Gulf stream is western portion  The eastern and western limbs of the subtropical gyres transport cold and warm water (respectively) around the globe  They play a large role in warming the poles and cooling the tropics  Thermohaline cycle: ocean’s conveyor belt - Slow circulation of the deep ocean - Driven by density differences (not wind) - Dense water (cold and salty) sinks in polar regions - Replaced by upwelling in other regions of the world - Redistributes heat around the globe - Large part of the reason Europe isn’t covered in ice - Past shutdowns of thermohaline cycle have led to drastic changes in Earth’s climate El Nino and La Nina - Climate patterns driven by changes in oceanic circulation - Typically Trade Winds over equatorial pacific blow from east to west - Winds drag warm surface water to western pacific


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.