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hesc/knes 342

by: lex

hesc/knes 342 hesc 342

Cal State Fullerton
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Stress Management
Karen Fazio
Class Notes




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by lex on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to hesc 342 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Karen Fazio in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 76 views.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
Stress  Management     Ch  3:  Sources  of  Stress  Across  the  lifespan     In  this  Chapter:  Objectives   n Understand  that  changes  across  the  lifespan     n Learn  about  the  Transactional  Model  of  stress   n Identify  influential  factors  associated  with  stress  in  childhood,  adolescence,   young  adulthood,  middle  adulthood,  and  later  adulthood   Stress  across  the  Lifespan   n Individuals  &  families  traverse  developmental  cycles   n Stages  are  characterized  by  different  developmental  tasks   n Typical  stressors  are  associated  with  specific  stages  of  individual   development   The  Theory  of  Development   n Developed  by  Robert  Havighurst   n Developmental  tasks:  Defined  as  specific  challenges  that  are  supposed  to   arise  at  a  particular  stage  in  life   n Individuals  may  suffer  consequences  in  the  future  when  these  tasks  are  not   mastered  during  the  specific  time  period   Life  Stages   n Infancy-­‐  Birth  to  3  years-­‐old   n Early  Childhood  -­‐  3-­‐6  years  old   n School  Age  -­‐  6-­‐12  years  old   n Adolescence  -­‐  13-­‐18  years  old   n Early  Adulthood-­‐  19-­‐23  years  old   n Young  Adulthood  –  24-­‐38  years  old   n Mid  Life  –  39-­‐50  years  old   n Later  Maturity  -­‐  51-­‐65  years  old   n Old  Age  –  66  to  end  of  life   Life  Stages  &  Stress   n Think  about  changes  you  have  experienced  in  your  life.   n What    developmental  tasks  or  stressors  are  present  in  your  life  that  weren’t   at  an  earlier  stage?   n What  tasks/stressors  do  you  expect  to  appear  in  the  next  stage(s)  of  your   life?   The  Transactional  Model  of  Stress   n Developed  by  psychologist  Richard  Lazarus   n A  greater  emphasis  is  placed  on  the  importance  of  cognitive  appraisal  in  this   model   n Stress  is  the  result  of  a  “transaction”  between  an  external  and  an  internal   event   n The  mediator  between  the  two  is  the  cognitive  appraisal  or  interpretation   (perception)   n Example:  Traffic  ticket  when  you’re  broke  and  when  you  are  “well-­‐off”  is  a   different  experience   n Two  separate  cognitive  events  are  involved:  a  primary  appraisal  and  a   secondary  appraisal   n The  primary  appraisal  will  identify  the  nature  of  the  environmental  demand   upon  the  person,  or  the  relationship  between  the  event  and  one’s  personal   goals   n The  secondary  appraisal  considers  the  person’s  own  resources  with  the   nature  of  the  challenge     Prenatal  and  Infant  Stress   n Even  fetuses  experience  stress   n Stress  hormones  can  act  to  force  an  early  delivery  of  a  baby  before  it  is  fully   developed   n High  cortisol  levels  in  the  baby  can  lead  to  death  of  brain  cells,  leading   possibly  to  later  memory  problems  and  childhood  emotional  disorders   n Once  born,  newborns  will  immediately  resort  to  self-­‐soothing  sucking  as  a   means  to  cope  with  stress     Stress  in  Elementary-­‐School-­‐Age  Children   n Children  between  the  ages  of  3-­‐5  will  rely  on  defensive  coping  strategies  to   cope  with  stress   n Such  defensive  mechanisms  include  regression,  displacement,  and  denial   n The  defense  mechanism  rationalization  is  used  more  often  as  one  gets  older   n Children’s  coping  strategies  include  physical  play,  strenuous  exercise,   fantasy,  and  various  social  outlets   n Warning  signs  that  signal  cries  for  help  at  this  age  include  bedwetting,  weight   gain  or  loss,  withdrawal  or  isolation,  frequent  emotional  outbursts,  reckless   behavior,  unexplained  physical  problems,  and  sudden  fears   n Emerging  social  identity  and  stress  in  relationships   n Beginning  reasoning  skills,  but  overgeneralization   n High  dependence  on  caregivers  with  emerging  sense  of  autonomy     How  Children  Cope  with  Stress   n Children  have  less  coping  resources  than  do  adults,  and  therefore  use  more   indirect  coping  strategies  that  appear  to  be  acting  out  behaviors   n Two  most  common  coping  strategies  are  avoidance  and  problem-­‐focused   n Poor  school  performance,  acting  out,  or  violent  behavior  may  signal  a  child’s   inability  to  cope  with  stress   n When  a  family  system  is  stable  children  are  more  likely  to  find  “healthy   solutions.   n Watching  television  or  being  on  the  computer  may  be  self-­‐medicating  ways   for  children  to  deal  with  their  stress   n Instant  “cures”  such  as  Ritalin  are  becoming  more  common   n Many  experts  agree  that  this  teaches  children  to  medicate  when  stressed  (i.e.   drugs/alcohol)   Stress  in  Adolescence   n Puberty  brings  about  many  physiological  and  psychological  changes,  as  well   as  changes  related  to  the  family  and  relationships   n Peer  Relationships   – Formation  of  identity,  primarily  through  interactions  with  others,  is   most  important   – Family  becomes  less  influential  while  peer  groups  become  more   important   n Peer  Relationships   – Early  adolescents  desire  popularity  and  belonging  to  the  same-­‐sex   group   – Stress  occurs  when  the  child  is  refused  admittance  into  a  group   – In  middle  adolescence,  boys  and  girls  begin  to  mix;  dating  and   romance  are  most  important   – Stress  occurs  when  learning  new  skills  to  establish  a  romantic   relationship,  date,  or  engage  in  sexual  activity   n Academics  in  School   – Transitions  from  elementary  to  middle  school,  and  from  middle  to   high  school  are  common  stressors  teenagers  face   – In  high  school,  the  demands  for  better  grades  arise,  as  well  as  stress   associated  with  preparation  for  the  SAT  test  and  college  applications   – Other  demands  such  as  dating,  part-­‐time  job,  extracurricular   activities,  drinking,  drugs,  and  sexual  activity  may  become   overwhelming  and  lead  to  stress   n Unusual  Stressors   – These  stressors  include  family,  social,  and  individual  problems   – Adolescents  who  experience  poverty  have  a  higher  rate  of   delinquency,  depression,  and  poor  self-­‐image;  may  resort  to  violence   as  a  means  to  cope   – Individual  problems  include  pregnancy,  serious  illness,  or  school   failure   n How  Teenagers  Cope  with  Stressors   – Adolescents  develop  better  coping  strategies  as  they  mature   – Drugs,  alcohol,  cigarettes,  sexual  activities,  and  eating  tend  to  be  used   as  coping  strategies   – Eating  disorders  have  become  increasingly  common   n Anorexia  nervosa  is  systematic  self-­‐starvation   n Bulimia  nervosa  is  binging  and  then  purging   Stress  in  Young  Adulthood   n Friendships  and  Social  Networks   n Selecting  a  Life  Partner   n College  and  Stress   n When  Stress  Leads  to  Suicide   n Sex,  Drugs,  Rock  and  Roll   n Career  Selection  and  Stress     Friendships  and  Social  Networks   n Major  developmental  issues  during  this  stage  are  finding  intimacy  versus   isolation   n Social  networks  can  include  ethnicity,  religion,  college  major,  sexual   orientation,  hobbies,  interests,  etc.   n Social  networks  allow  one  to  cope  with  stressors  (e.g.,  trading  favors,   watching  one  another’s  backs,  and  helping  one  another  out  in  time  of  need)     Selecting  a  Life  Partner   n Mate  selection  can  be  a  tremendous  source  of  stress   n Meeting  new  people,  making  favorable  impressions,  engaging  in  small  talk,   dating,  and  rejection  can  be  overwhelming  sources  of  stress     College  and  Stress   n First  year  of  college  is  considered  among  the  most  stressful  developmental   transitions   n Pressures  include  leaving  home,  changes  in  sleeping  and  eating  habits,  new   responsibilities,  social  pressures,  roommate  conflicts,  class  workload,  dating,   intimacy,  and  financial  difficulties     When  Stress  Leads  to  Suicide   n Mood  swings,  anxiety,  and  depression  are  common  among  high  school  and   college-­‐age  young  adults   n Three  leading  causes  of  death  for  15-­‐24  year-­‐olds  are  accidents,  homicide,   and  suicide   n When  intervening  with  someone  who  seems  bent  on  self-­‐destruction,   consider  the  following:   n Talk  about  suicidal  intentions  with  the  person   n Listen  for  allusions  to  suicidal  thoughts   n Find  out  if  there  is  a  plan   n Check  out  the  ability  to  carry  out  the  plan   n Observe  whether  the  person  has  made  arrangements   n Note  signs  of  serious  depression   n Note  obsessive  thinking  as  well   n Family  history  of  suicide   n Previous  attempts     Sex,  Drugs,  Rock  and  Roll   n These  are  the  three  most  reliable  ways  to  soothe  oneself  temporarily   n Long-­‐term  usage  of  alcohol  and  drugs  can  lead  to  serious  negative   consequences     Career  Selection  and  Stress   n Choosing  the  right  major  or  career  path  can  be  stressful   n The  odds  are  more  likely  that  we  will  change  our  major  or  job  throughout   this  period  of  time     Drugs  &  Alcohol   n People  self-­‐medicate  for  stress  with  street  drugs  and  alcohol  due  to  their   quick  stress-­‐relieving  action.   n However,  street  drugs  and  alcohol  are  short-­‐acting  and  have  significant  risks   of  side  effects  and  addiction.     Alcohol  Facts   n 1,825  college  students  die  each  year  from  alcohol  related  injuries.   n 599,000  students  are  injured,  directly  or  indirectly,  because  of  alcohol.   n 696,000  students  are  assaulted  by  someone  who  is  intoxicated.   n Another  97,000  students  are  raped  or  sexually  assaulted  by  someone  who   had  been  drinking.   n 3,360,000  students  drove  their  cars  while  drinking.   n 400,000  students  have  unprotected  sex  and  more  than  100,000  students  port   having  been  too  intoxicated  to  know  if  they  consented  to  having  sex   n 25%  of  students  who  drink  frequently  report  having  serious  academic   problems  in  school.     n Almost  one  third  of  all  college  students  qualify  for  a  diagnosis  of  alcohol   abuse.   n 50%  of  male  students  and  39%  of  females  have  engaged  in  binge  drinking  (5   or  more  drinks  in  one  sitting)  within  the  previous  two  weeks.     Alcohol  Use  Side  Effects   n Poor  academic  performance   n Brain  &  liver  damage   n Dysfunctional  peer  group   n Birth  defects   n Impotence  or  erectile  dysfunction   n Impaired  judgment  &  diminished  motivation   n Irritability  &  mood  swings     Stress  during  Middle  Adulthood   n Late  30’s,  40’s,  50’s   n Family  development   n Juggling  multiple  projects/roles   n Creating  a  meaningful  life   n Health  concerns  -­‐  recognizing  mortality   n After  age  50,  there  is  a  drop  in  stress  and  increase  in  life  satisfaction     Later  Maturity/Old  Age  &  Stress   n Ageism   n Retirement   n Lack  of  social  support   n Losing  partners/peers    


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