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hesc 220

by: lex
Cal State Fullerton
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About this Document

ch 1
Concepts Health Science
A. Ransons
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by lex on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HESC 220 at California State University - Fullerton taught by A. Ransons in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 78 views.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
CH  1  What  is  Public  Health?     Public  Health   n People  of  developed  countries  are  healthier  today  than  they  were  a  century   ago.     n This  is  mainly  due  to  improved  living  conditions  brought  about  by   public  health.   n Sanitation   n Better  nutrition  and  food  service/preparation   n Occupational  safety     n In  the  1980’s  public  health  was  taken  for  granted.   n However,  new  health  concerns  were  appearing:   n AIDS  epidemic   n Environmental  pollution  growing   n Aging  population  demanding  increased  health  services   n Social  problems  (teen  pregnancy,  violence,  substance  abuse)   n In  1988  the  Institute  of  Medicine  published  The  Future  of  Public  Health.   n This  refocused  attention  on  the  importance  of  public  health  and  has   revitalized  the  field.   n The  report  gives  a  four-­‐part  definition  describing  public  health’s   n Mission   n Substance   n Organizational  Framework   n Core  Functions   n Mission  –  “the  fulfillment  of  society’s  interest  in  assuring  the  conditions  in   which  people  can  be  healthy.”   n Substance  –  “organized  community  efforts  aimed  at  prevention  of  disease   and  promotion  of  health.”   n Organizational  Framework  –  encompasses  “both  activities  undertaken  within   the  formal  structure  of  the  gov’t  and  the  associated  efforts  of  private  and   voluntary  organizations  and  individuals.”   n Core  Functions  –  defined  as     n 1)  assessment,  (Taking  vitals  (preliminary  assessment)   n 2)  policy  development  (Treatment  Plan)   n 3)  assurance  (Follow-­‐up  appt,  assure  that  it  is  resolved)     Medical  Practice  Model   n To  better  understand  public  health  and  its  functions  we  can  compare  it  to   medical  practice   n Medicine  is  concerned  with  a  patient  as  public  health  is  concerned  with  the   community   n A  doctor  will  assess  the  patient,  diagnose  the  problem,  seek  for  the  cause  of   the  problem  and  then  strategize  how  best  to  treat  the  patient.   n In  public  health,  we  follow  a  similar  model,  but  work  instead  with  the   community,  the  public.       Public  Health’s  focus  is  more  preventative,  where  as  medical  is  based  on  the   aftermath,  treatment,  etc.  (retroactive)   Assessment  –  ex:  Monitor  health  status  –  death  rates  due  to  car  accidents   Development  –  ex:  Develop  policies  for  seat  belt  laws,  educate  the  public   Assurance  –  ex:  Enforce  laws,  evaluate  effectiveness       How  it  is  Different   n Public  health  has  the  responsibility  of  assuring  people  that  the  services   needed  for  the  protection  of  the  public’s  health  are  available  and  accessible   to  everyone.   Public  health’s  focus  on  prevention  makes  it  more  abstract  than  medicine,  and  its   achievements  are  therefore  more  difficult  to  recognize     Sciences  of  Public  Health   n The  six  disciplines  of  public  health:   1. Epidemiology   2. Statistics   3. Biomedical  Sciences   4. Environmental  Health  Sciences   5. Social  &  Behavioral  Sciences   6. Health  Policy  &  Management  or  Health  Administration     Epidemiology   n The  basic  science  of  public  health,  the  study  of  epidemics.   n It  focuses  on  human  populations,  usually  starting  with  an  outbreak  of  disease   in  a  community.   n Epidemiologists  look  for  common  exposures  or  other  shared  characteristics   in  the  people  who  are  sick,  seeking  the  causative  factor.     Statistics   n Because  public  health  deals  with  the  health  of  populations  statistics  are   relied  upon  heavily.   n Governments  collect  data  of  births,  deaths,  certain  communicable  diseases,   age  of  death,  cause  of  death,  etc…these  numbers  can  be  diagnostic  tools.   n To  understand  what  the  numbers  mean  it  is  important  to  understand  certain   statistical  concepts  and  calculations.     Other  Sciences   n Biomedical  Sciences   n Environmental  Health  Science   n Social  and  Behavioral  Sciences   n Health  Policy  &  Management  or  Health  Administration     Prevention  and  Intervention   n Public  Health’s  approach  to  health  problem’s  in  a  community  (a  five-­‐step   process):   q Define  the  health  problem.   q Identify  the  risk  factors  associated  with  the  problem.   q Develop  and  test  community-­‐level  interventions  to  control  the  cause   of  the  problem.   q Implement  interventions  to  improve  the  health  of  the  population   q Monitor  those  interventions  to  assess  their  effectiveness.   n Three  levels  of  Prevention:     q Primary  –  seeks  to  avoid  the  occurrence  of  an  illness  or  injury  by   preventing  exposure  to  the  risk  factor.   q Secondary  –  seeks  to  minimize  the  severity  of  illness  or  damage  due  to   injury.   q Tertiary  –  seeks  to  minimize  disability  by  providing  medical  care  or   rehabilitative  services.   n Chain  of  Causation:     q Agent   q Host   q Environment   n Prevention  is  accomplished  by  breaking  the  chain  at  any  step.      


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