PSY 110 H002
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gwad on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 110 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Dr. Latihis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 79 views.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Chapter Preview Nervous system Neurons Neurotransmitters Guess Question! Where is the division of the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS)? o On the outer edge of the spine Neuroscience Study of the body’s electrochemical communication circuitry o Release from one Neuro to other Neuro Nervous system Great complexity (100 billion neurons, 100 trillion connections ‘synapses’) Integrates senses Adaptability (plasticity) Electrochemical transmission Nervous system: Pathways Nerves carry information from body to brains o Call afferent (sensory) = arrive Signal from brain to body o Efferent (motor) = exist o Which type of nerve connects with the skin? afferent o What connect with muscles Efferent Central (CNS) o Brain and spinal cord Peripheral (PNS) o Somatic NS Sensory nerves Motor nerves Cause movement of muscles Internal organs o Autonomic NS Sympathetic NS Arouses Parasympathetic NS Calms Nervous system: Cells Glial cells o Help in some small way of communication in brain o Provide support and nutrition Neurons (about 100 billion in brain) o Information processing Computing &communicating o Mirror neurons (in primates) Explain why they are so good in primates Activate when watching someone else make the action Neurons: Impulse Negatively + Positively charged lons Polarization (imbalance in Charges) Resting potential Semipermeable Membranes (something that can pass thru it or not) o Protein can’t pass thru the membranes Ion channels Depolarization (Lon channels open) Threshold Action potential o Lon exchange sweeps along length of axon What is it called when a neuron fires? Action Potential What is the resting potential across the axon? o 70 Synapses and Neurotransmitters Electrical impulse is converted into a chemical signal Axon vesicle releases neurotransmitter into gap Dendrite receptor site detects neurotransmitter What are neurotransmitters stored in before they are released in the terminal button? o Vesicles What type of neurotransmitter is typically associated with learning and memory? o Is there any controversy surrounding mirror neurons? o Yes Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters carry information o Acetylcholine (excitatory) Muscle actions, learning, memory Black window venom increase Ach levels Botox (botulin) decrease Ach levels Alzheimer’s disease decrease Ach levels o Glutamate (excitatory Learning and memory Involved in many psychological disorders o Norepinephrine (excitatory) Stress and mania increase norepinephrine levels Regulates sleep states in conjunction with Ach o Dopamine Reward Stimulant drugs: e.g. cocaine activate dopamine receptors Control of voluntary movement Parkinson’s disease decrease too low dopamine levels Schizophrenia increase too high dopamine levels o Serotonin Regulation of mood, sleep, attention, learning Depression are decrease serotonin levels too low Prozac increase rises serotonin levels SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor o Endorphins Natural opiates Increases pleasure o GABA (inhibitory) Anxiety decrease levels o Oxytocin Both a hormone and a neurotransmitter Related to onset of lactation on new mother Related to attachment/emotional bonds Note: drugs can interfere with neurotransmitters (NT) o Mimic or enhance NT effects o Block effects of NT Robin Williams and Dopamine o Robin Williams 19512014 He is depressing He goes thru drug problem (cocaine) Nervous system (CNS PNS) Neuron Neurotransmitters o Excitatory Ach, glutamate, norepinephrine o Inhibitory Gaba (involved in anxiety)
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