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WEEK 5-6 Class Notes

by: Alma Rose Jackson

WEEK 5-6 Class Notes ASTR 170B1

Marketplace > University of Arizona > ASTR 170B1 > WEEK 5 6 Class Notes
Alma Rose Jackson
GPA 3.0

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About this Document

Class Notes for week 5 and 6
The Physical Universe
Daniel Marrone
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alma Rose Jackson on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR 170B1 at University of Arizona taught by Daniel Marrone in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
Astronomy:   170B1  T   he   Physical   Universe  Week   3   Sep   23­Sep   30    ~In    lass    otes   9/23  ­Patterns   in   the   Solar   System:  All   planets   rotate   in   the   same   direction   and   orbit   the   same   way  Same   for   moons  ­Two   kinds  o  f  lanets:  Terrestrial:   mall,   rocky,   dense  Jovian:   large,   gaseous  ­Exceptions:   Venus  s pins   backwards  Uranus   is   tipped   on   its   side  ­Nebular   Hypothesis  Immanuel   Kant  1   755  Sun   and   Solar   system   formed   from   a   collapsing   cloud   of   gas   Collapsing  c   loud    eats   p  Spins   up  Flattens/Circularizes   Naturally   leads   to   uniformity   of   spin/orbit   directions  ­Collapsing   Cloud  Energy  C   onservation  Gravitational   Potential   Energy   turns   to   Kinetic   Energy  ­Forming  P   lanets:  We   have   two    inds   of   planets   because   of:        ­Ingredients:   Hydrogen,   Helium,   Hydrogen   compounds,   rock   ,   metals  ­Inner   parts   of   the   disk   are   hotter   than   the   outer   parts.  ­Frostline:  Inside   the  rost  ine:   too   hot     ydrogen  Outside   the   frost   line:   cold   enough   for   ice   to   form  ­Jovian   planets:   outside   frost   line  ­Terrestrial   planets:   inside   fros ine      9/26  ­Material   Available   for   planet   formation  Closer   to   start   (hotter):   Metals/   rocks  Further   from   star   (colder):   same      ^   plus   gases   and   ices  ­Terrestrial    lanets  Collisions   create   planetesimals  Gravity   eventually   forms   planets   from   these  ­Jovian    lanets  Larger    lanetesimals   possible  Gravity   pulls  n   Hydrogen  a  nd   Helium   gas  ­Impacts  Earth’s    oon   formed   from   giant  mpact   ­Heat   of   accretion:   Leftover   from   formation,  gravitational   potential   energy   t hermal   energy  ­Heat   of   differentiation:   settling   of   dense   material  ­Radioactive   decay  ­Conduction:  Heat   from   interior   warms   layers   above   by   contact   ­Radiation:  Blackbody   grow  o   n   armed   outer   layer  ­Convection:  Cyclical   rise/fall  ue   to   cooling/gravity  Warm  m   aterial   i ess   ense   and   rises  Core   convection   ­>    agnetic  f ield   Mantle  C  onvection   ­>    late   ectonics  ­Loss   of   interior   heat   depends   on   the   planet   size,   smaller   planet’s   moons   lose   heat   earlier  ­Mercury   is   basically   all   core  ­Moon/Mars:   thick  g   eologically   dead  ­Impact   Cratering  ­Volcanism  ­Tectonics  ­Erosion   (weather   driven)  9/28  ­Terrestrial    lanet   tmospheres  High   energy   photons   (x   rays)   can’t   penetrate   the   atmosphere,   neither   can   Nearly   visible   (UV).  Visible   light   from   the   sun   passes   through   the   atmosphere  Greenhouse   gases,   pass   visible   light   and   absorbs   infrared   light  Energy  t rapped,   warms   the   atmosphere  ­Effective  G  H   gases:  Carbon  D  ioxide  Methane  Water  ­Carbon   Dioxide  r  egulation  9/30  Carbon   Dioxide   released  f rom   Interior:   volcanism  Carbon   Dioxide   in   atmosphere   warms   the   planet   and   dissolves   rainwater   and   can   be   stored   in   oceans  Ocean   minerals   get   subducted   into   planet,   CO2   released   again   later  ­Effects    f   increasing   CO2   levels:  Forest   death  Transient   Flooding  Intense   Heat   Waves  Increased   Drought  Melting   Ice    ­A.Jackson       


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