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soci 101, ch 2 again

by: lex

soci 101, ch 2 again soci 101

Cal State Fullerton

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ch 2
introduction to sociology
jessica coronel
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by lex on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to soci 101 at California State University - Fullerton taught by jessica coronel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
Ch  2  RESEARCH  METHODS     Scientific  method     • Systematic  organized  series  of  steps  that  ensures  maximum  objectivity  and   constancy  in  researching  a  prob     5  STEPS     1. Define  prob   2. Review  literature   3. Form  testable  hypothesis     4. Select  research  design,  collect  and  analyze  data   5. Develop  conclusion       Define  prob   • Operational  definition     o Abstract  concept  explained  specific  enough  to  let  researchers  assess   the  concept     Review  lit     • Refines  prob  under  study     o See  kinks  did  see/  anticipate  before     o Decide  if  want  to  continue  w/  topic  or  not     Form  hypothesis   • Hypothesis   o Speculative  statement  about  relation  between  2+  variables     • Variable   o Measurable  trait  that’s  subject  to  change  under  diff  conditions     o Independent  variable=  causes/  influences  another  variable   o Dependent  variable=  depends  on  influence  of  independent  variable     o IV  (time  spent  studying)  à  DV  (performance  on  exam)     Collecting  and  analyzing  data   • Selecting  the  sample   • Sample   o Selection  of  larger  population  that’s  statistically  typical  of  that   population     o Representative  of  population  going  to  study     • Random  sample   o Every  member  of  population=  same  chance  of  selection     • Snowball/  convenience  sample   o Ppl  recruited  via  word  to  mouth,  posting  notices  on  internet,  etc     o Convenient     • Ensure  validity  and  reliability     o Validity=  degree  the  measure  reflects  the  phenomenon  being  studied   o Reliability=  extent  measure  gives  constant  results   Developing  conclusion     • Supporting  the  hypothesis     o Sociological  studies  don’t  always  generate  date  that  support  original   hypothesis     • Controlling  other  factors     o Control  variable  =  constant  variable.  Test  impact  of  independent   variable     Research     • QUANTative  research   o Collect  and  report  data  in  #  form     o Quick     • QUALitative  reseatch   o Relies  on  whats  observed  and  naturalistic  setting     o Focus  on  small  groups  and  communities     Research  designs     • Detailed  plan/method  for  obtaining  scientific  data     • Survey,  observation,  experiments,  existing  sources       Surveys=  provide  info  how  ppl  act/  think     • Interview=  face  to  face,  phone,  webcam     • Questionnaire=  printed/  written  q’s  to  get  info     • Can  be  expensive  and  time  consuming       Ethnography     • Collect  info  via  direct  participation  and/or  closely  watching  a  group     • Being  involved     • Detailed  info  about  specific  groups     • Try  to  describe  and  entire  social  setting  via  extended  systematic  observation     • Observation:  socialists  joins  groups  to  get  accurate  sense  of  how  it  operates     Experiments   • Artificially  created  situations-­‐  can  manipulate  variables     • Experimental  group=  exposed  to  IV     • Control  group=  not  exposed  to  IV     • Hawthorne  effect       o Unintended  influence  of  observers  of  experiments  on  subjects     o Observers  presentà  Ppl  act  differently     Using  existing  sources     • Cost  efficient,  limited  to  data     • Secondary  analysis   o Research  techniques-­‐  use  previously  collected  and  publically   accessible  info  and  data     • Content  analysis   o Systematic  coding  and  objective  recording  of  data,  guided  by  some   rational       Ethnics  of  research     • Maintain  objectivity  and  integrity  of  research   • Respect  subjects  right  to  privacy  and  dignity     • Protect  subjects  from  personal  harm     • Preserve  confidentiality     • Get  informed  consent     • Acknowledge  collaboration  and  assistance     • Disclose  sources  of  financial  support     • Confidentially     • Conflict  of  interest     • Value  neutrality     o Investigators=  ethical  obligation  to  accept  research  findings  even  if   the  data  is  opposite  of  their  personal  views  to  theoretically  based   explanations  or  to  widely  accepted  beliefs     o (cant  let  values  get  in  the  way  of  the  job  even  if  the  job  and  your   personal  beliefs  conflict)       reading  graphs     o tables  and  figures=  display  data  and  makes  it  easier  to  develop  conclusions     o cross  tabulation=  show  relation  between  2+  variables     o graphs=  easier  for  public  to  understand       writing  research  report     o finding  info     o textbook,  library  catalog,  computerized  periodical  index,  newspaper,   govt  documents,  instructor,  ask  ppl,  orgs  and  agencies     o writing  report   o focus  on  topic   o make  outline     o work  ahead  of  deadline   o read  paper  aloud     o include  citations  and  references        


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