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Psych CH. 7 Notes

by: Emily Brady

Psych CH. 7 Notes Psych 2010

Emily Brady
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Introduction to Psychology
Jerry Murphy
Class Notes
Psychology, Intro to Psychology, memory




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Brady on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2010 at Auburn University taught by Jerry Murphy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
Chapter 7 Book Notes  7.1 What is Memory?  Memory: The nervous system’s capacity to retain and retrieve skills and knowledge  Memory is the processing of information  o Encoding: the processing of information so that it can be stored   The brain changes info into a neural code that it can use  o Storage: the retention of encoded representation over time   Change in your nervous system registers what you just experienced,  retaining it as a memorable event  o Consolidation: The neural process by which encoded information becomes stored in memory  o Retrieval: The third phase of memory; the act of recalling or remembering stored  information when it is needed  Memory is the Result of Brain Activity:  Engram: refers to the physical site of memory storage   The firing of one neuron becomes increasingly likely to cause the firing of the other  neuron o Cells that fire together wire together   Long term potentiation (LTP): strengthening of a synaptic connection, making the  postsynaptic neurons more easily activated by presynaptic neurons.  o Serves as a model of how neural plasticity might underlie memory   Reconsolidation: Neural processes involved when memories are recalled and then stored again for retrieval  o EX: A librarian returns a book to a shelf for storage so that it can be taken out  again later  SUMMING UP:  Memory is the capacity of the nervous system to retain and retrieve skills and  knowledge   Consolidation is the neural process by which encoded information becomes stored in memory   Reconsolidation describes the neural and epigenetic processes that take place when  memories are recalled and then stored again for later retrieval. The model may  explain why and how memories change over time   7.2 How are Memories Maintained over Time?   Sensory memory: A memory system that very briefly stores sensory information in close to its original sensory form  o Only lasts a fraction of a second; normally not aware of it happening   Short term memory: a memory storage system that briefly holds a limited amount of  information in awareness  o Verbal information was rehearsed until it was stored or forgotten  o Active processing unit that deals with multiple types of information   Working memory: An active processing system that keeps different types of  information available for current use  o This storage system actively retains and manipulates multiple pieces of  temporary information from different sources o EX: Working memory includes sounds, images, and ideas for about 20­30  seconds unless you actively prevent it from happening   Chunking: Organizing information into meaningful units to make it easier to remember   Memory span: can only hold a limited amount of information; generally, seven items  (plus or minus two)  Long term memory: the relatively permanent storage of information  o Distinct from working memory in two ways:  It has longer duration  Far greater capacity   Serial position effect: the idea that the ability to recall items from a list depends on the  order of presentation, with items presented early or late in the list remembered better than those in the middle  o Primacy effect: refers to the better memory that people have for items presented  at the beginning of the list  o Recency effect: refers to the better memory that people have for the most recent  items, the ones at the end of the list   SUMMING UP:  Information is transferred from working memory to long term memory if it  repeatedly rehearsed, if people pay attention to the details, or if it aids to an  environment  Today, short term memory is more accurately considered working memory, an  active information processing system  7.3 How is Information Organized in Long Term Memory?  Maintenance rehearsal: repeating the item over and over  Elaborative rehearsal: encodes the information in more meaningful ways, such as  thinking about the item conceptually or deciding whether it refers to oneself   Schemas: cognitive structures that help us perceive, organize, process, and use  information  o Structures in long term memory that help us perceive, organize, process,  and use information  o We construct new memories by filling in holes within existing memories,  overlooking inconsistent information, and interpreting meaning based on  past experiences   Retrieval cue: anything that helps a person (or nonhuman animal) recall information  stored in long term memory o Encountering stimuli, such as the fragrance of a roasting turkey, a  favorite song from years past, a familiar building, etc., can trigger  unintended memories   Encoding specificity principle: the idea that any stimulus that is encoded along with  an experience can later trigger a memory for the experience  o Context dependent memory: based on things such as physical location,  odors, and background music, many of which produce a sense of familiarity  o State dependent memory: applies to internal states brought on by drugs or  alcohol   Mnemonics: learning aids, strategies and devices that improve recall through the use  of retrieval cues  o Useful for remembering items in long lists  SUMMING UP:  According to the levels of processing model, memory is enhanced by deeper  encoding   Schemas are cognitive structures that help us perceive, organize, process, and use  information. Schemas can lead to biased encoding based on cultural expectations   Mnemonics, such as the method od loci, are learning strategies that improve recall  through the use of retrieval cues   According to association network models of memory, information is stored in the  brain in nodes, and nodes are connected via networks to many other nodes.  Activating one node results in spreading activation to all associated nodes within the network  7.4 What are the Different Long Term Memory Systems?   Long term storage: o Explicit memory: (declarative) requires conscious effort and often can be  verbally described; the system underlying conscious memory   Episodic Memory: Personally experienced events; memory for one’s  personal past experiences   EX: where and what you did for your 16  birthday  Semantic memory: Facts and knowledge; knowledge of facts  independent of personal experience   EX: might not remember where you learned it, but you know  it   Declarative memory: knowledge we can declare (consciously bring to  mind)  o Implicit memory: (nondeclarative) Does not require conscious effort and often  cannot be verbally described; the system underlying unconscious memories  Do not require conscious attention   Classical conditioning: Associating two stimuli elicits a response   Procedural memory: Motor skills and habits; a type of implicit memory  that involves motor skills and behavioral habits  o Episodic memory: Memory for one’s personal past experiences  Prospective Memory: Remembering to do something at some future time  o Includes both automatic and controlled processes SUMMING UP:  Semantic memory is memory for knowledge about the world 7.5 When Does Memory Fail? ERROR TYPE DEFINITION EXAMPLE Transience/memory  Forgetting Reduced memory  Forgetting the  decoding over time plot of a movie Blocking/retrieval failure Forgetting  Inability to  Failing to recall  remember needed the name of a  information  person you met in the street Absentmindedness/encoding Forgetting Reduced memory  Losing your keys  failure  due to failing to  or forgetting a  pay attention   lunch date Persistence  Remembering  The resurgence of Remembering an  unwanted or  embarrassing  disturbing  faux pas  memories one  would like to  forget  Misattribution Distortion Assigning a  Falsely thinking  memory to the  that Richard  wrong source  Shiffrin is famous because his name  is well known   Bias Distortion Influence of  Remembering  current  past attitudes as  knowledge on  similar to current  memory for past  attitudes even  events  though the past  attitudes have  changed  Suggestibility  Distortion Altering a  Developing  memory because  false memories  of misleading  for events that  information did not happen  Transience: forgetting over time   Proactive interference: interference that occurs when prior information inhibits the  ability to remember new information   Retroactive interference: interference that occurs when new information inhibits the  ability to remember old information   Blocking: the inability to remember something; retrieval failure  o EX: cannot recall the name of your favorite song   Absentmindedness: the inattentive or shallow encoding of events  o Major cause of this is failing to pay attention   Amnesia: A deficit in long term memory­ resulting from disease, brain injury, or  psychological trauma­ in which the individual loses the ability to retrieve vast quantities  of information  o Retrograde amnesia: A condition in which people lose past memories, such as  memories for events, facts, people, or even personal information  o Anterograde amnesia: A condition in which people lose the ability to form new  memories   Persistence: The continual recurrence of unwanted memories  o EX: PTSD SUMMING UP:  HDAC inhibitors may help erase old persistent memories, but additional research is needed. Further, erasing memories can pose ethical concerns   Reconsolidation can reduce persistence but only for recent memories  7.6 How are Long Term Memories Distorted?   Memory bias: the changing of memories over time so that they become consistent  with current beliefs or attitudes   Flashbulb memories: vivid episodic memories for the circumstances in which  people first learned of a surprising, consequential, or emotionally arousing event   Source misattribution: Memory distortion that occurs when people misremember  the time, place, person, or circumstance involved with a memory  o EX: false fame effect  Source amnesia: A type of misattribution that occurs when a person shows memory  for an event but cannot remember where he or she encountered the information  o EX: childhood amnesia; making memories based on photographs and  stories being told to you   Cryptomnesia: A type of misattribution that occurs when a person thinks he or she  has come up with a new idea, yet has only retrieved a stored idea and failed to  attribute the idea to its proper source  o EX: students who takes verbatim notes sometimes experience the illusion  that they have composed the sentences themselves   Suggestibility: The development of biased memories from misleading information   


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