Test 1010- Week 1 Notes
Test 1010- Week 1 Notes Test 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Childers on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Test 101 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Madison Childers in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
1. Dominant Trait: Occurs most often in generations when reproducing. Example: In the Childers family brown hair is a dominant trait over blonde hair because 2 out of the 3 children have brown hair and not blonde. 2. Recessive Trait: Skips a generation and only occurs when the dominant traits are non-existent. Example: Blue eyes are a recessive trait to brown eyes because they occur less often than brown eyes do. 3. Principles of Segregation: Gametes receive only one of their two traits when splitting and forming new genes. Example: A gamete may have one trait for big feet and one for little feet, but when the gamete splits the principle of segregation states that the two separate gametes can only contain one of those traits of big OR little feet but not both. 4. Principle of Independent Assortment: Alleles sort themselves into different gametes without help. Example: When sorting genes out, X and x are sorted differently than Y and y and each of the genes: X, x, Y, and y are sorted independently from each other. 5. Genotype: The genetic outlook of an organism. Example: A genotype example would be your RS Rs RY Ry blood type. Sr sr Yr ry 6. Phenotype: The outer appearance of an organism. XS Xs XY Xy Example: A phenotype example would be your hair color or height. Sx xs Yx xy 7. Heterozygous Genotype: Different alleles for one gene pair. Example: An example of a heterozygous genotype would be a gene pair that had the alleles Rr. 8. Homozygous Genotype: Same alleles for one gene pair. Example: An example of a homozygous genotype would RS Rs be a gene pair that had the alleles RR. 9. Sr rs Monohybrid Cross: A cross that only involves one trait. Example: S s R r 10.Dihybrid cross: A cross that involves two traits. Example: S s Y y R r X x 11.Codominant Alleles: When heterozygotes have homozygous traits in their phenotypes. Examples: A person who has two different colored eyes, one blue and one brown, may have a phenotype that has one allele dominant for brown eyes and also one allele dominant for blue eyes. 12.Incomplete Dominance: Of the two alleles neither one has complete dominance over the other. Example: An orange flower may result from a recessive trait red flower and a recessive trait yellow flower. 13.Multiple Alleles: Having more than two alleles. Example: Blood type ABO has more than two alleles. 14.Homologous Chromosomes: A pair of chromosomes which has one allele from the mother and one from the father. Example: A chromosome may receive the recessive trait for sickle cell anemia from the mother but the dominant trait from the father, thus it has received one allele from each parent. 15.Nondisjunction: When replicated chromosomes do not separate during Anaphase II. st Example: Down’s syndrome is the occurrence of the 21 chromosome to have nondisjunction, resulting in an extra chromosome. 16.Pleiotropy: The effect of a single gene on more than one chromosome. Example: Marfan’s Syndrome is a pleiotropic disease that can affect one’s limb size, cardiac complications, and the mobility of their joints. 17.Epistasis: When one gene interferes with the showing of another. Example: The trait of baldness would be epistatic to a trait of hair color because the not having hair would hide whatever hair color that trait was told to have. 18.Sex-linked Trait: A trait, usually a disease or condition, related to either the mother or father’s sex chromosomes and can be passed on to different children. Example: Mother has a gene that carries a gene for asthma and the father does not so when they have their children some will be carriers and others will not be. 50% of these children will inherit asthma, one boy and one girl. Asthma carrying allele Mother’s normal X chromosome Father’s normal Y chromosome Father’s normal 19.SRY Gene: A version a pleiotropy gene, known as a Sex-determining Region on the Y chromosome makes gonads turn into testes after fertilization. Example: SRY region on the “Y” 20.Barr Body: An inactivated X chromosome in females. Example: During fertilization the female body will shut off on of the two X chromosomes to prevent the doubling of sex chromosomes, the “shut off” chromosome would be the Barr body.
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