W5: Chemical Principles notes (9/19, 9/21, 9/23)
W5: Chemical Principles notes (9/19, 9/21, 9/23) sch 100 01
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Olivia Lange on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to sch 100 01 at Seton Hill University taught by Professor Flowers in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Chemical Principles in Chemistry at Seton Hill University.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
9/12/16 O.L. Exam 1 Study Guide: Review of classes and sections learned: 08/22 M Course Overview/ Definition of Chemistry 08/24 W Matter & Measurements 08/26 F Matter & Measurements 08/29 M Matter & Measurements 08/31 W Problem Solving 09/02 F Atoms & Periodic Table 09/05 M n/a 09/07 W n/a 09/09 F Atoms & Periodic Table 09/12 M Atoms & Periodic Table 09/14 W review (HW #3 moved to friday) 09/16 F review (exam moved to monday) 09/16 M EXAM 1 General Points overview for each section: ● Review math equations through textbook’s online practices. Chapter 1: Section 1.1 to 1.12: ● Chemistry: The Central Science ○ Chemistry ○ Matter ○ Scientific method ○ Property ○ Physical change ○ Chemical change ● States Of Matter ○ Solid (s) ○ Liquid (l) ○ Gas (g) ○ State of Matter ○ Change of State ● Classifications Of Matter ○ Pure substance ○ Mixture ○ Homogenous mixture ○ Heterogeneous mixture ○ Element ○ Chemical compound ○ Aspirin (fun fact) ● Chemical Elements & Symbols ○ Chemical formula ○ Identify symbols and names of common elements 9/12/16 O.L. ● Chemical Reactions: Examples of Chemical Change ○ Chemical reaction ○ Reactant ○ Product ● Physical Quantities: Units and Scientific Notation ○ Physical quantity ○ Unit ○ SI Units ○ Metric units vs. U.S. measurements ○ Scientific notation ● Measuring Mass, Length, & Volume ○ Mass ○ Weight ● Measurement & Significant Figures ○ Significant figures & its 4 rules ● Rounding Off Numbers ○ Rounding off ● Problem Solving: Unit Conversions & Estimating Answers ○ Factorlabel method ○ Conversion factor ○ Steps of “ballpark estimates” ● Temperature, Heat, & Energy ○ Energy ○ Temperature (F, C, Kelvin) ○ Specific heat ● Density & Specific Gravity ○ Density ○ Density = Mass (over) Volume Chapter 2: Section 2.1 to 2.9: ● Atomic Theory & The Structure of Atoms ○ Atom ○ Atomic theory (know all 4 parts) ○ Subatomic particles ○ Protons ○ Neutrons ○ Electrons ○ AMU/ Atomic mass unit ○ Know how to use periodic table to find atomic mass/ atomic number/ protons/ electrons/ neutrons ○ Nucleus ● Elements & Atomic Number ● Isotopes & Atomic Weight ○ Atomic # (Z) ○ Mass # (A) ○ Isotopes 9/12/16 O.L. ○ Atomic weight ● The Periodic Table ○ Know the setup of the periodic table (metals/metalloids/nonmetals) ○ Know how to find the atomic # and atomic mass in the symbol’s block ○ Metals ○ Metalloids ○ Nonmetals ○ Periods ○ Group ○ Main group element ○ Inner transition metal element ● Some Characteristics of Different Groups ○ Alkali metal ○ Alkaline earth metal ○ Halogen ○ Noble gas ● Electronic Structure of Atoms ○ Shell (electron) ○ Subshell (electron) ○ Orbital ● Electron Configuration ○ Order of orbital levels ○ Electron configuration ○ Orbital diagram ● Electron Configurations & the Periodic Table ○ S block element ○ P block element ○ D block element ○ F block element ○ Valence shell ○ Valence electron ● ElectronDot Symbols ○ Electrondot (Lewis dot) structure 3.1 Ions (9/21/16) ● Ions play a critical role in many cellular processes, including signal transmission between nerve cells. ● Learning Objective: Describe ion formation processes and distinguish between anions and cations. ● Alkali metals (group 1A) form compounds with Halogens (group 7A). ○ Everybody wants to be an 8, so 1+7=8. ● Properties of these compounds include the following: ○ High melting points ○ Stable, white, crystalline solids ○ Soluble in water ○ Conduct electricity when dissolved in water ● An ion is formed when a neutral atom gains or loses electrons. ○ The loss of one or more electrons from a neutral atom gives a positively charged ion called a cation. ○ The gain of one or more electrons by a neutral atom gives a negatively charged ion called an anion. ● Sodium & other alkali metal atoms have a single electron in their valence shell and an electron configuration of (n)s1. ○ By losing this electron, an alkali metal is converted to a positively charged cation with a stable noble gas configuration. ○ A sodium atom and sodium cation are different! The cation loses an e. ● Chlorine and other halogen atoms have a ns2np5 electron configuration. ○ By gaining an electron, a halogen is converted to a negatively charged anion with a stable noble gas configuration. (9/23/16) ● The symbol for a cation is written by adding the positive charge as a superscript to the symbol for the element. ○ The sodium cation would be written as Na+ ● The symbol for an anion is written by adding the negative charge as a superscripts ○ The chlorine anion would be written as Cl ● If the charge is greater than 1, the number used, as in Ca 2+ and N3 3.2 Ions & the Octet Rule ● Octet rule: Main group elements tend to undergo reactions that leave them with 8 valence electrons. ● When sodium or any other alkali metal reacts with chlorine or any other halogen, the metal transfers an electron from its valence shell to the valence shell of the halogen. ● Main group metals lose electrons to form cations and attain an electron configuration like that of the noble gas just before them in the periodic table. ● Main group nonmetals gain electrons to form anions and an electron configuration like that of the noble gas just after them in the periodic table. Worked Examples 3.3 Ions of Some Common Elements ● Group 1A: ● Group 2A: ● Group 3A: ● Group 4A, 5A: ● Group 6A: ● Group 7A: ● Transition metals form cations, but they can lose one or more “d” electrons in addition to losing valence “s” electrons. The Octet Rule is not followed. Worked Example 3.4 Periodic Properties & Ion Formation ● INSERT SLIDE ● Ionization energy is the energy required to remove one electron from a single atom in the gaseous state. ○ Small values indicate ease of losing electrons to form cations. ● Electron affinity is the energy released on adding an electron to a single atom in the gaseous state. ○ Halogens have the largest values and gain electrons most easily. ● See page 79’s chart ● Halogens gain electrons most easily. ● Alkali metals lose electrons most easily. ● Noble gases neither lose nor gain electrons. ● Elements near the middle of the periodic table do not form ions easily. Worked Example 3.4 + 3.5 It is easier for Mg to lose 2 e than for S to gain 2 e 3.5 Naming Monoatomic Ions ● Main group metal cations are names by identifying the metal, followed by the word ion. ● K+ is potassium ion, Mg2+ magnesium ion, Al3+ aluminum ion ● Anions are named by replacing the ending of the element with ide, followed by the word ion. ● Bromine, Br, bromide ion ● Oxygen, O2, Oxide ion ● Transition metals can form more than one type of cation. Two naming systems are used. ○ Old: the ion with the smaller charge is given the ous ending, the ion with the larger charge is given the ic ending. ○ New: The charge on the ion is given as a roman numeral in parentheses right after the metal name. ○ Cr2+ is old: Chromous ion, is new: Chromium (II) ion ○ Cr3+ is old: Chromic ion, is new: Chromium (III) ion ● See table 3.1 in your textbook 3.6 Polyatomic Ions ● Polyatomic ions: an ion that is composed of more than one atom ● The atoms in a polyatomic ion are held together by covalent bonds. ● A polyatomic ion is charged because it contains a total number of electrons that is different from the total number of protons in the combined atoms. ● These ions are encountered so frequently that it is essential to memorize their names and formulas. ● See Table 3.3 in textbook