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Week 7 lecture notes

by: Ivy Notetaker

Week 7 lecture notes Psyc 3580

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Lecture notes from Social Psychology class on Sept 27 and Sept 29
Social Psychology
Dr. Gitter
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ivy Notetaker on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 3580 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Gitter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
Social Psychology Dr. Gitter 9/27/16 Emotions continued… 6 emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, surprise, disgust, fear ­ Cross­cultural emotion expression Movie: Inside Out­ actually pretty accurate about emotions; Ekman was consulted for the movie Cognitive Approach: ­ Agree with biological psychologists that there are a limited number of different  physiological responses. ­ Disagree in how many emotions there are o Yes, there are probably a few basic families of emotion o But, within those families there are countless numbers of emotions. Cognitive Perspective: ­ Your interpretation of an event will color your emotional experience. o Same event, different interpretation.  Break­ups: happy or sad depends on the person o Different event, same interpretation.   Getting an A or C, people are happy with different grades.  ­ Reaction to stimulus event moderates the experience of emotion.  o Weiner (1986)  Attribution Theory and Emotion­ the way you think about event  changes your emotion Attribution Theory of Emotion ­ Schachter two­factor theory o Arousal­ you are feeling an emotion  High vs. low arousal  Pleasant vs. unpleasant o Cognition­ tells you what that emotion is  People search for a source of the arousal. ­ Test of the theory o Injected participants with Epinephrine (adrenaline) o Participants told:  Injection will make them jumpy/arousal (informed).  Told it was vitamins (uninformed). o Put in room with confederate (fake participant that knows the experiment) o Confederated acted:  Goofy and euphoric or   Angry and outraged o Participants filled out mood questionnaire assessing  Happiness and anger o Results:  Informed participants­ no change in emotional state  Uninformed participants:  With euphoric confederate­ increased happiness  With angry confederate­ increased anger Emotions and Motivation ­ Two ways in which emotions influence motivation.  ­ First, emotions are a type of motivation. o Some suggest that emotion is the most primary motivator of behavior. o Someone puts hands around your neck­ arousal because feeling of being  suffocated AND  the fear of being suffocated ­ Emotions as a type of motivation. o Negative emotions and motivations.  Need to make corrections. o Someone pulls gun on youFearFlight/Self­Protection Do emotions cause behavior? ­ Baumeister, Dewall, Vohs, and Alquist (2009)  o People who were rejected didn’t really feel sad Linked with eating: ­ 60 individuals with binge­eating disorders o Half asked to fast for 14 hours  Hungry or not o Negative or neutral mood induced  Wrote about worst day or neutral day ­ Served a buffet lunch. o Amount consumed was much more dependent on mood than level of hunger. o Follow­up­ participants told that eating doesn’t actually affect mood. Let’s talk about helping… ­ Countless studies have shown that being in a bad mood increases helping. ­ Manucia, Baumann, and Cialdinni (1984) o Step 1: Participants put into a neutral, sad, or happy mood. o Step 2: Participants given a pill­ “mood­freezing” or “vitamin” pills ­ Sad mood participants given “vitamin” pill o Helped more than other conditions.  ­ Sad mood participants given “freezing” pill o Did not help any more than other conditions. Do emotions cause behavior? ­ Other reason to question the causal function of emotions. o Emotions can cause irrational self­defeating behavior.  Ex. stress eating, anger problems, depressive binge drinking What do emotions do? ­ Test anxietylower performance ­ Optimal arousal­ a certain amount of test anxiety is beneficial because it motivates you  to study and focus Do emotions cause behavior? ­ Other reasons to question the casual function of emotions. o Emotion is super slowpeople act without thinking  o Luckily, automatic affect (change in arousal and valence) is quick ­ Emotions give behavior its energy, but not its direction.  ­ Second, emotions provide feedback about purposive behavior (to continue or to cease) What else do emotions do? ­ Social function of emotion o Communicate feelings to others o Influence others o Invite and facilitate social interaction. o Create, maintain, and dissolve relationships. ­ Social emotions­ they encourage interpersonal success o Some of the social emotions:  Guilt­ feeling bad for known transgression  Embarrassment­ feeling bad for a faux pas  Jealousy­ feeling bad because your partner may leave you o All encourage social behavior to enact change.  *Good in moderation: not good if too high or too low 9/29/16 Social Emotions ­ Social­ they encourage interpersonal success ­ Some of the social emotions: o Guilt­ feeling bad for known transgression o Embarrassment­ feeling bad for a faux pas o Jealousy­ feeling bad because your partner may leave you ­ All encourage social behavior to enact change.  *Good in moderation; not good if too high or too low. Guilt ­ Although aversive, guilt is really good for relationships. ­ Encourages: o Apologies  Convey that the act was wrong and you know it  Suggests that the person will not do it again  Implies that the person does care  Ex. Companies are reluctant to apologize because they know it could  happen again and it makes them liable for the damages. o Make amends. ­ Experiment: Participants induced to feel guilty o Half of participants given answers by another participant (confederate) o Asked if they knew anything (if they cheated) about the study (all said no) o Given opportunity to make amends by filling in bubble sheets (like scantron) for  another experiment (super boring work, not getting paid, no motivation besides  their guilt) ­ Results: time spent on bubble sheets o Guilty: 63 minutes average o Not guilty: 4 minutes average Empathy ­ Capability to experience other’s emotional states *Empathy probably is the greatest of all the social emotions. ­ Affect­as­information hypothesis: we make decisions based on how we feel, not thinking  about it. ­ Emotions help in decision making… o If you see something and it generates positive emotion, you’ll approach it. o If you see something and it generates negative emotion, you’ll avoid it.  What does emotion do? ­ Negative emotions reduce future errors. o E.g. if you feel guilty about cheating on your spouse, you will be less likely to  cheat on them again. o Positive punishers of socially undesirable behaviors ­ Encourage us to generate counterfactuals o Counterfactuals­ what you’ll do differently to avoid bad thing from happening;  alternative paths you could have taken to avoid bad thing Emotion and Olympics ­ Researchers coded emotional reactions of silver and bronze medalists during the 1992  Olympics. ­ Who expressed more positive emotions? o Gold= most positive o Silver= least positive; so close to gold, but so yet so far away o Bronze= middle level of positivity; happy to get 3 , not 4  place with no medal, a  long way from first place Counterfactuals ­    Two types: o Upward counterfactual­ imagining a better possible outcome; makes you feel  worse/more negative o Downward counterfactual­ imagining a worse possible outcome; makes you feel better/more positive emotionsless likely to change things to correct situation ­    Affective forecasting: pre­experiencing emotion and decision making o People pretty good at picking which emotion they will feel. o People really bad at predicting how much and for how long (over prediction)  Doesn’t help to be upset when you actually miss your train.  Does help to be upset when thinking you might miss your train. ­    Positive­Negative asymmetry effect o So far we have mostly discussed the effects of negative moods. o Why?   Bad emotions are more important to humans than good, and affect us more greatly.   Bad is stronger than good.  Consistent to finding that bad events: Affect us more o Ex. winning or losing $1: people are more upset when  losing than they are happy when winning $1 Last longer o More pervasive in memory­ except for memory about  something about ourselves; remember bad things in other  people better than bad things of ourselves o Influence behavior more Hedonic treadmill­ objective factors don’t strongly influence  happiness o Examples:  Getting a raise doesn’t have as much of an  emotional change in your emotion (unless you’re  below the poverty line)  Buying things won’t make you happier­ being  grateful for what you have does  Buying gifts for other people makes you happier  longer than buying gifts for yourself  Spending money on events and experiences makes  people happier than buying things Attitudes ­ Attitude­ a favorable or unfavorable evaluative reaction toward something or someone,  exhibited in one’s belief, feelings, or intended behavior ­ ABC dimensions of attitudes: o Affect (feelings) o Behavior (actions) o Cognition (thoughts) Attitude formation: ­ Where do our attitudes come from? o Some obvious source:  Parents  Friends  Institutional sources  Personal experiences o Less obvious:  Embodied cognition­ your actions influence the way you feel  Experiment: Participants shake head “yes” or “no” to test durability of  headphones; later asked if they agreed or disagreed with what they were  listening to on the headphones: the people who shock their head “yes”  agreed and “no” disagreed  Recognition  Experiment: people shown many different characters with neutral attitude; the one they were shown the most, they had a more positive attitude  towards Mere Exposure ­    Mirror flip study o Participants come in with friend and take pictures of friend and mirror image o Which picture do you like best? Friend liked mirrored image because that’s what  they usually see (in the mirror) Attitude Formation ­    Mere exposure effect­ the more we are exposed to something the more we like it o Chinese character study o Mirror print study o Why?  What is familiar is safe/good? o Depends on:  Initial attitudes  Co­occurrence of other stimuli o Conditioning Dual Attitudes ­    We are not always aware of our attitudes.  ­    Sometimes we have two different evaluations of an object/person. o Implicit attitude­ what you feel deep down inside o Explicit attitude­ what you’re willing to tell others ­    Sometimes they are different. o Implicit­ nonconscious automatic evaluation  May or may not be aware of it. o Explicit­ conscious deliberative evaluation  Want to please others or don’t like implicit attitudes  Ex. racist thoughts/stereotypes from non­racist person ­    One of the major reasons that attitudes can fail to predict behavior! Do attitudes predict behavior? ­    Wicker (1969): Attitudes sometimes fail to predict behavior o Ex. volunteering, the environment


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