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PSYCH Chapter 10 Notes- Health and Stress

by: Kayra Reyes

PSYCH Chapter 10 Notes- Health and Stress PSYC 1300

Marketplace > University of Houston > Psychology (PSYC) > PSYC 1300 > PSYCH Chapter 10 Notes Health and Stress
Kayra Reyes

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About this Document

These notes cover chapter 10 from "Mastering the World of Psychology” by Samuel E. Wood, Ellen Green Wood, Denise Boyd, 5th edition. There is important vocab, examples, etc.
Intro to Psychology
Dr. Herb W Agan
Class Notes
health, stress, STDs, nutrition, lifestyle, sleep, Psychology, workplace, antibodies
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayra Reyes on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1300 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Herb W Agan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Houston.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
Chapter 10 from “Mastering the World of Psychology” by Samuel E. Wood, Ellen Green Wood, Denise Boyd, 5th edition Pg 329. SOURCES OF STRESS Stress: involuntary response to a condition that requires an individual to adapt and create adjustments Stressor: “Any stimulus or event capable of producing physical or emotional stress” *Stressors don’t always have to be negative events, even positive ones cause stress Life Events Approach: The view that a person’s state of well-being can be threatened by major life changes, from which positive and negative results can come Ex: a break-up, losing a job, etc. Pg 330. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS): “Holmes and Rahe’s measure of stress, which ranks 43 life events from most to least stressful and assigns a point value to each” *A score of over 300 within a 2 year period can cause illness or distress Catastrophic Events -like natural disasters, or violent events like war, stress victims and those watching these events on the news Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): prolonged and severe stress reaction to a catastrophic event or severe, chronic stress *usually known for nightmares, panic attacks, flashbacks, etc…can lead to substance abuse Survivor Guilt/Moral Injury: Guilt from having survived when others died or suffered or guilt at having taken someone’s life in combat Hassles: Richard Lazarus, irritating demands that occur daily and may cause more stress than major life changes do Pg 332. Hassles Scale: focuses on every day stressors and recognizes that certain things may not be considered stressors to some individuals versus others, allowing them to rate its level of stress on a scale of 3 Uplifts: “The positive experiences in life, which may neutralize the effects of many hassles.” Approach-Approach Conflict: conflict arising from having to choose between two desirable options Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict: conflict arising from having to choose between undesirable options Approach-Avoidance Conflict: A conflict arising when the same choice has both desirable and undesirable features. Ex: skipping class to sleep in may relieve stress from staying up late nights, but may also risk missing important information or a pop quiz STRESS IN THE WORKPLACE Workload: how much work one is assigned *even too little work is stressful Clarity of Job Description and Evaluation Criteria: either confusion about one’s responsibilities at work or overly strict and rigid expectations Physical Variables: things in the environment that affect one’s comfort like temp. or sounds Job Status: like being underpaid creates a need to find more income or being a celebrity can be overwhelming Accountability: stress of having others’ well-being depend on one’s own work input Task Variety: doing the same tasks gets repetitive, people need variety for stimulation Human Contact: how often they interact with people and how comfortable they are with having to work or not work with people Physical Challenge: how physically demanding a job is, or physically risky (like firefighting) Mental Challenge: how mentally challenging a job is *workplaces can be challenging for women because they face sexual harassment and discrimination as well as having to balance a workplace with a family Burnout: “Lack of energy, exhaustion, and pessimism that results from chronic stress” SOCIAL SOURCES OF STRESS: challenges of life vary by different environments Racism Historical Racism: history of repression among an ethnic group *African Americans tend to have high hypertension or cardiovascular reactivity due to facing higher levels of racism Socioeconomic Status: one’s income, occupation, education level, etc. *lower socioeconomic status has been found to correlate with higher levels of cholesterol, higher rates of smoking, more irregular eating patterns, … Unemployment: loss of job or income Acculturative Stress: adjusting to life in a new culture Integration Orientation: one’s belief that they will be able to adapt to a new culture while keeping ties to their own culture means they are well equipped to manage the stress of adapting THE HEALTH-STRESS CONNECTION The Biopsychosocial Model of Health and Illness Biomedical Model: “A perspective that explains illness solely in terms of biological factors” Pathogens: microorganisms that cause illness Pg 336. Biopsychosocial Model: accepts psychological and social factors as ones that also affect health and illness Health Psychology: use principles of health psychology to prevent illness and support health and recovery. Pg 337. The Physiology of the Health-Stress Connection Fight-or-Flight Response: response where sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine glands prepare the body to fight or flee from danger Two Fight-or-Flight Responses: 1) Biochemical (like NYP) used in FoF, affects body functions 2) indirectly affects health by suppressing the body’s immune system Neuropeptide (NPY): chemical that helps reduce anxiety, also tend to block vessels Lymphocytes: “The white blood cells—including B cells and T cells—that are the key components of the immune system” B cells: make bone marrow T cells: produced in the thymus gland Antigens: cells foreign to the body Antibodies: proteins produced by B cells that help remove antigens Psychoneuroimmunology: A field in which psychologists, biologists, and medical researchers combine their expertise to study the effects of psychological factors on the immune system *stress decreases the number of antibodies Ex: if you have an exam, the stress will cause you to be more likely to get sick THEORIES OF STRESS RESPONSE General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS): Hans Selye, a pattern of reactions that organisms show in response to stress, made up of three stages: Alarm Stage: first stage, hormones called glucocorticoids (that increase heart rate and blood sugar) supply a burst of energy that aids in dealing with the stressful situation Resistance Stage: second stage, when there are intense physiological efforts to either resist or adapt to the stress Exhaustion Stage: third stage, occurs if the organism fails in its efforts to resist the stressor and disintegration and death follow. Pg 339. Lazarus’s Cognitive Theory of Stress: (Richard Lazarus), explains stressors don’t cause stress but instead our interpretation of our emotions Primary Appraisal: evaluation of situation to determine whether it is truly significant or meaningful and more importantly threatening enough to be stressful Secondary Appraisal: evaluation of the probability of one’s ability to control the situation at hand and whether there are enough resources available Pg 340. RISK AND RESILIENCE Risk/Resilience Model: “A perspective that proposes that risk and protective factors interact to produce or protect us from illness” Coping: Efforts to deal with stressful situation Problem-Focused Coping: response aiming to reduce one’s stress Emotion-Focused Coping: response aiming to reduce its emotional impact Proactive Coping: measures taken in advance of a potentially stressful situation in order to prevent it or make it less stressful Optimism: expecting good outcomes or the ability to find light in a difficult situation Pg 342. Hardiness: Suzanne Kobasa, “combination of three psychological qualities— commitment, control, and challenge—shared by people who can handle high levels of stress and remain healthy” Religious and Social Involvement: it has been found that individuals more involved in social and religious groups tend to be happier and healthier *In a study done, volunteers were given nose drops containing a cold virus. After reporting back with researchers to find if the individuals had developed a virus. Despite the hundreds of individuals infected, those highly and socially involved were more immune to the virus Social Support: support system coming from parents, friends, or social groups Perceived Support: the degree to which an individual believes that support is available to them Received Support: the actual help a person receives Perceived Control: one’s perceived sense of control over their life affects their stress level HEALTH AND ILLNESS Coronary Heart Disease: arteries that supply blood to the heart are blocked Sedentary Lifestyle: inn which one’s job allows very little to no mobility, as well as less than 20 minutes of exercise a day…sedentary= mostly sitting *Personality can affect one’s risk of heart disease, two main personalities are: Type A Behavior Pattern: marked by a sense of urgency, impatience, competitiveness, and anger  leads to higher risk of heart disease Type B Behavior Pattern: marked by a relaxed, easygoing approach, less urgency, impatience, and hostility, Type A’s opposite  less risk of heart disease Type D Behavior Pattern: “People who exhibit chronic emotional distress combined with a tendency to suppress negative emotions” CANCER -2 leading cause of death, 30% of people will get cancer -though normal cells know when to stop dividing, cancer cells cannot stop -social interaction and support was most helpful to cancer patients, and those in denial and refusing to socialize had the most distress GENDER AND HEALTH -women are more likely to die during surgery and need transfusions than men ETHNIC GROUP DIFFERENCES IN HEALTH -certain illnesses are more prevalent in certain ethnic groups, ex: diabetes is more common in Native Americans than White Americans Explaining Group Differences -health differences are affected by one’s socioeconomic status, nutrition, education, and access to health care -White Americans are more likely to have ADHD than African Americans or Hispanics Pg 348. Racial Patterning: People in the same ethnic groups tend to keep the same habits or behaviors (living in the same environments, conditions, and nutrition habits) LIFESTYLE AND HEALTH -the way we live affects out health, what we eat, when we sleep, etc. Smoking and Health -Smoking mothers tend to have babies with Down syndrome and low birth weights Passive Smoking: breathing in the second-hand smoke in the air, very detrimental to one’s health and lungs, though not physically smoking -children who breathe in second-hand smoke are more likely to get pneumonia, lung disease, asthma, etc. Alcohol Abuse Substance Abuse: the continued use of a substance despite it disrupting different aspects of their life like their job or family life Pg 351. -Alcoholics who want to give up their drinking habit can only withdraw effectively through abstaining from alcohol as alcoholics find it nearly impossible to lose all craving for alcohol, a small taste can restart the abuse cycle SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): Infections that are spread primarily through intimate sexual contact -Chlamydia is the most common STD in America, which women are 3x more likely to develop than men Bacterial STDs: STDs that can be treated using antibiotics Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: infection of the female reproductive tract causing infertility Syphilis: bacterial STD that causes mental disorders and in some cases, death Pg 352. Viral STDs: STDs caused by viruses, typically incurable Human Papillomavirus (HPV): STD that can lead to cervical cancer and many other effects like genital warts, studies show that 50% of men and women in America who are sexually active will contract HPV Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS): incurable illness caused by HIV which weakens the body’s immune system, leaving the person vulnerable to infections that usually cause death Ways of Preventing HIV: 1. AZT drugs can prevent the passing of HIV from mother to baby in womb 2. Antiretroviral drugs prevent HIV from infecting healthy cells, prevents AIDS deaths 4 Main Sources of HIV transfer: 1. Male/Male Sexual Intercourse 2. Male/Female Sexual Intercourse 3. Intravenous Drug Use (aka like taking heroin with a dirty needle) 4. Male/Male Sexual Intercourse combined with Intravenous drug use *Circumcision decreases the risk of contracting or transferring HIV to a partner AIDS-Related Dementia: illness similar to Alzheimer’s but only found in HIV positive individuals Pg 355. DIET AND EXSCERCISE Aerobic Exercise: “Exercise that uses the large muscle groups in continuous, repetitive action and increases oxygen intake and breathing and heart rates.” Aerobic Exercise Helps to: -Combat chronic diseases -boost energy and mood -improve sexual intimacy -manage weight… Sarcopenia: age related condition by which muscles begin to deteriorate, prevented by exercise Osteoporosis: loss of bone mass, prevented by exercise ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE Alternative Medicine: treatment or therapy that has not been scientifically demonstrated to be effective Ex: taking orange juice to fight a cold or drinking tea to cure a sore throat


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