PSYCH Chapter 10 Notes- Health and Stress
PSYCH Chapter 10 Notes- Health and Stress PSYC 1300
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayra Reyes on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1300 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Herb W Agan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Chapter 10 from “Mastering the World of Psychology” by Samuel E. Wood, Ellen Green Wood, Denise Boyd, 5th edition Pg 329. SOURCES OF STRESS Stress: involuntary response to a condition that requires an individual to adapt and create adjustments Stressor: “Any stimulus or event capable of producing physical or emotional stress” *Stressors don’t always have to be negative events, even positive ones cause stress Life Events Approach: The view that a person’s state of well-being can be threatened by major life changes, from which positive and negative results can come Ex: a break-up, losing a job, etc. Pg 330. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS): “Holmes and Rahe’s measure of stress, which ranks 43 life events from most to least stressful and assigns a point value to each” *A score of over 300 within a 2 year period can cause illness or distress Catastrophic Events -like natural disasters, or violent events like war, stress victims and those watching these events on the news Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): prolonged and severe stress reaction to a catastrophic event or severe, chronic stress *usually known for nightmares, panic attacks, flashbacks, etc…can lead to substance abuse Survivor Guilt/Moral Injury: Guilt from having survived when others died or suffered or guilt at having taken someone’s life in combat Hassles: Richard Lazarus, irritating demands that occur daily and may cause more stress than major life changes do Pg 332. Hassles Scale: focuses on every day stressors and recognizes that certain things may not be considered stressors to some individuals versus others, allowing them to rate its level of stress on a scale of 3 Uplifts: “The positive experiences in life, which may neutralize the effects of many hassles.” Approach-Approach Conflict: conflict arising from having to choose between two desirable options Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict: conflict arising from having to choose between undesirable options Approach-Avoidance Conflict: A conflict arising when the same choice has both desirable and undesirable features. Ex: skipping class to sleep in may relieve stress from staying up late nights, but may also risk missing important information or a pop quiz STRESS IN THE WORKPLACE Workload: how much work one is assigned *even too little work is stressful Clarity of Job Description and Evaluation Criteria: either confusion about one’s responsibilities at work or overly strict and rigid expectations Physical Variables: things in the environment that affect one’s comfort like temp. or sounds Job Status: like being underpaid creates a need to find more income or being a celebrity can be overwhelming Accountability: stress of having others’ well-being depend on one’s own work input Task Variety: doing the same tasks gets repetitive, people need variety for stimulation Human Contact: how often they interact with people and how comfortable they are with having to work or not work with people Physical Challenge: how physically demanding a job is, or physically risky (like firefighting) Mental Challenge: how mentally challenging a job is *workplaces can be challenging for women because they face sexual harassment and discrimination as well as having to balance a workplace with a family Burnout: “Lack of energy, exhaustion, and pessimism that results from chronic stress” SOCIAL SOURCES OF STRESS: challenges of life vary by different environments Racism Historical Racism: history of repression among an ethnic group *African Americans tend to have high hypertension or cardiovascular reactivity due to facing higher levels of racism Socioeconomic Status: one’s income, occupation, education level, etc. *lower socioeconomic status has been found to correlate with higher levels of cholesterol, higher rates of smoking, more irregular eating patterns, … Unemployment: loss of job or income Acculturative Stress: adjusting to life in a new culture Integration Orientation: one’s belief that they will be able to adapt to a new culture while keeping ties to their own culture means they are well equipped to manage the stress of adapting THE HEALTH-STRESS CONNECTION The Biopsychosocial Model of Health and Illness Biomedical Model: “A perspective that explains illness solely in terms of biological factors” Pathogens: microorganisms that cause illness Pg 336. Biopsychosocial Model: accepts psychological and social factors as ones that also affect health and illness Health Psychology: use principles of health psychology to prevent illness and support health and recovery. Pg 337. The Physiology of the Health-Stress Connection Fight-or-Flight Response: response where sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine glands prepare the body to fight or flee from danger Two Fight-or-Flight Responses: 1) Biochemical (like NYP) used in FoF, affects body functions 2) indirectly affects health by suppressing the body’s immune system Neuropeptide (NPY): chemical that helps reduce anxiety, also tend to block vessels Lymphocytes: “The white blood cells—including B cells and T cells—that are the key components of the immune system” B cells: make bone marrow T cells: produced in the thymus gland Antigens: cells foreign to the body Antibodies: proteins produced by B cells that help remove antigens Psychoneuroimmunology: A field in which psychologists, biologists, and medical researchers combine their expertise to study the effects of psychological factors on the immune system *stress decreases the number of antibodies Ex: if you have an exam, the stress will cause you to be more likely to get sick THEORIES OF STRESS RESPONSE General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS): Hans Selye, a pattern of reactions that organisms show in response to stress, made up of three stages: Alarm Stage: first stage, hormones called glucocorticoids (that increase heart rate and blood sugar) supply a burst of energy that aids in dealing with the stressful situation Resistance Stage: second stage, when there are intense physiological efforts to either resist or adapt to the stress Exhaustion Stage: third stage, occurs if the organism fails in its efforts to resist the stressor and disintegration and death follow. Pg 339. Lazarus’s Cognitive Theory of Stress: (Richard Lazarus), explains stressors don’t cause stress but instead our interpretation of our emotions Primary Appraisal: evaluation of situation to determine whether it is truly significant or meaningful and more importantly threatening enough to be stressful Secondary Appraisal: evaluation of the probability of one’s ability to control the situation at hand and whether there are enough resources available Pg 340. RISK AND RESILIENCE Risk/Resilience Model: “A perspective that proposes that risk and protective factors interact to produce or protect us from illness” Coping: Efforts to deal with stressful situation Problem-Focused Coping: response aiming to reduce one’s stress Emotion-Focused Coping: response aiming to reduce its emotional impact Proactive Coping: measures taken in advance of a potentially stressful situation in order to prevent it or make it less stressful Optimism: expecting good outcomes or the ability to find light in a difficult situation Pg 342. Hardiness: Suzanne Kobasa, “combination of three psychological qualities— commitment, control, and challenge—shared by people who can handle high levels of stress and remain healthy” Religious and Social Involvement: it has been found that individuals more involved in social and religious groups tend to be happier and healthier *In a study done, volunteers were given nose drops containing a cold virus. After reporting back with researchers to find if the individuals had developed a virus. Despite the hundreds of individuals infected, those highly and socially involved were more immune to the virus Social Support: support system coming from parents, friends, or social groups Perceived Support: the degree to which an individual believes that support is available to them Received Support: the actual help a person receives Perceived Control: one’s perceived sense of control over their life affects their stress level HEALTH AND ILLNESS Coronary Heart Disease: arteries that supply blood to the heart are blocked Sedentary Lifestyle: inn which one’s job allows very little to no mobility, as well as less than 20 minutes of exercise a day…sedentary= mostly sitting *Personality can affect one’s risk of heart disease, two main personalities are: Type A Behavior Pattern: marked by a sense of urgency, impatience, competitiveness, and anger leads to higher risk of heart disease Type B Behavior Pattern: marked by a relaxed, easygoing approach, less urgency, impatience, and hostility, Type A’s opposite less risk of heart disease Type D Behavior Pattern: “People who exhibit chronic emotional distress combined with a tendency to suppress negative emotions” CANCER -2 leading cause of death, 30% of people will get cancer -though normal cells know when to stop dividing, cancer cells cannot stop -social interaction and support was most helpful to cancer patients, and those in denial and refusing to socialize had the most distress GENDER AND HEALTH -women are more likely to die during surgery and need transfusions than men ETHNIC GROUP DIFFERENCES IN HEALTH -certain illnesses are more prevalent in certain ethnic groups, ex: diabetes is more common in Native Americans than White Americans Explaining Group Differences -health differences are affected by one’s socioeconomic status, nutrition, education, and access to health care -White Americans are more likely to have ADHD than African Americans or Hispanics Pg 348. Racial Patterning: People in the same ethnic groups tend to keep the same habits or behaviors (living in the same environments, conditions, and nutrition habits) LIFESTYLE AND HEALTH -the way we live affects out health, what we eat, when we sleep, etc. Smoking and Health -Smoking mothers tend to have babies with Down syndrome and low birth weights Passive Smoking: breathing in the second-hand smoke in the air, very detrimental to one’s health and lungs, though not physically smoking -children who breathe in second-hand smoke are more likely to get pneumonia, lung disease, asthma, etc. Alcohol Abuse Substance Abuse: the continued use of a substance despite it disrupting different aspects of their life like their job or family life Pg 351. -Alcoholics who want to give up their drinking habit can only withdraw effectively through abstaining from alcohol as alcoholics find it nearly impossible to lose all craving for alcohol, a small taste can restart the abuse cycle SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): Infections that are spread primarily through intimate sexual contact -Chlamydia is the most common STD in America, which women are 3x more likely to develop than men Bacterial STDs: STDs that can be treated using antibiotics Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: infection of the female reproductive tract causing infertility Syphilis: bacterial STD that causes mental disorders and in some cases, death Pg 352. Viral STDs: STDs caused by viruses, typically incurable Human Papillomavirus (HPV): STD that can lead to cervical cancer and many other effects like genital warts, studies show that 50% of men and women in America who are sexually active will contract HPV Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS): incurable illness caused by HIV which weakens the body’s immune system, leaving the person vulnerable to infections that usually cause death Ways of Preventing HIV: 1. AZT drugs can prevent the passing of HIV from mother to baby in womb 2. Antiretroviral drugs prevent HIV from infecting healthy cells, prevents AIDS deaths 4 Main Sources of HIV transfer: 1. Male/Male Sexual Intercourse 2. Male/Female Sexual Intercourse 3. Intravenous Drug Use (aka like taking heroin with a dirty needle) 4. Male/Male Sexual Intercourse combined with Intravenous drug use *Circumcision decreases the risk of contracting or transferring HIV to a partner AIDS-Related Dementia: illness similar to Alzheimer’s but only found in HIV positive individuals Pg 355. DIET AND EXSCERCISE Aerobic Exercise: “Exercise that uses the large muscle groups in continuous, repetitive action and increases oxygen intake and breathing and heart rates.” Aerobic Exercise Helps to: -Combat chronic diseases -boost energy and mood -improve sexual intimacy -manage weight… Sarcopenia: age related condition by which muscles begin to deteriorate, prevented by exercise Osteoporosis: loss of bone mass, prevented by exercise ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE Alternative Medicine: treatment or therapy that has not been scientifically demonstrated to be effective Ex: taking orange juice to fight a cold or drinking tea to cure a sore throat
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