9/28 Intro to Psych Chapter 5 Notes
9/28 Intro to Psych Chapter 5 Notes PSYC 1000
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Cialone on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1000 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Liza Lizcano in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Intro to Psych October 3, 2016 1. Learning -a change due to experience a. Habituation i. We respond less to stimulus over time b. Sensitization i. We respond more to stimulus over time c. Classical conditioning (CC) i. Complex ideas built upon simple associations 2. Pavlov -studied digestion in dogs a. Neutral stimulus (NS) i. No reaction ex. A bell tone b. Unconditioned stimulus (US) i. The animal/organism has a natural response to ex. meat, cookie, etc. c. Unconditioned response ex. Drool d. Conditioned stimulus i. Match the unconditioned stimulus to neutral stimulus e. Conditioned response i. Reaction to stimulus ex. Salivation when hearing a bell and then given meat 3. Major terms in CC a. Acquisition i. Acquiring the condition response b. Extinction i. Condition response stops c. Spontaneous recovery i. Condition disappears but then reappears d. Renewal effect i. Response is distinguished in one place, but appears in another place e. Stimulus generalization i. Similar stimuli get the same response f. Stimulus discrimination i. Exhibit a response to some stimuli but not others 4. Higher Order Conditioning a. When a new conditioned stimulus is paired with a previously established conditioned stimulus ex. Show dog a cookie, he droolsthe crumpling of cookie bag, comes over and starts to droolthe cookie bag is in cupboard, dogs hears cupboard open and close, comes over and drools 5. Classical Conditioning (automatic responsedrool) a. Advertising ex. Relation of papa john’s pizza and football b. Latent inhibition i. Not wanting something because of over use/access/conditioning c. Phobias a. study of Little Albert i. paired furry animals/things with loud clanginfant became scared of any furry animals/things 6. Operant conditioning -learning due to consequences of organism’s behavior 7. The Law of Effect a. If we get a reward for a response to a stimulus, we are more likely to repeat the response later b. Thorndike came up with this law -Stimulus response psychology -Studied cats: placed them in a puzzle box, the cat needs to pull a string or lever to open door in order to get out of box and get food placed outside of box 8. Skinner’s rats a. Skinner box i. Recorded animal’s activity ii. Similar to Thorndike’s work 9. Major terms in Operant conditioning a. Reinforcement: strengthens the response i. Positive: give a stimulus ex. Given candy to answer more questions ii. Negative: remove a stimulus ex. To stop a snooze alarm continuously b. Punishment: decreases probability of response i. Positive: adds a stimulus ex. Spanking ii. Negative: removes a stimulus ex. A girl wants her doll but she is cryingwait for the girl to stop crying and then give her the doll iii. Disadvantages -Less effective -Tells what not to do but doesn’t say what you should do -Can lead to anxiety -Encourages sneakiness -Model for aggressive behavior c. Discriminative stimulus a. Signals presence of reinforcement ex. When a friend waves at you, you will most likely either to wave back or walk over and talk to them d. Extinction burst i. Take away reinforcement, bad behavior increases a lot but then goes away ex. Rocking a baby to sleepstop rocking baby to sleepbaby cries for three days but then stops cryingbaby does not need to be rocked to sleep e. Schedule of reinforcement: pattern of reinforcing a. Continuous i. Reinforce every time behavior happens b. Partial/intermittent i. Only reinforce some of the time ii. Slower extinction c. Consistency i. Fixed: regular basis ii. Variable: irregular d. When you reinforce i. Interval: time since you last reinforced ii. Ratio: how many responses e. Variable ratio i. Reinforcement after an average number of times f. Fixed Ratio i. Reinforcement after a set number of responses g. Variable interval i. Reinforcement after an average time interval h. Fixed interval i. Reinforcement after a set number of intervals of time ex. Getting paid every two weeks f. Animal training i. Shaping: reinforcement of behavior that is very close but not quite ex. Training a dog to staydog stays for 10 seconds ii. Fading: stop reinforcing over a period of time iii. Chaining: group responses together