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Lecture 11 - Science

by: Rebecca Stewart

Lecture 11 - Science PSYC 2113 - 002

Rebecca Stewart

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About this Document

These notes cover what will be on the second midterm exam.
Intro to Brain and Behavior
Dr. Tierney Lorenz
Class Notes
brain, and, behavior, Lorenz, Tierney, Chapter, 7, Psychology
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca Stewart on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2113 - 002 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Dr. Tierney Lorenz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Intro to Brain and Behavior in Psychology at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.

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Date Created: 10/03/16
9/28/16 – 9/30/16 Midterm Exam 2 Chapter 7 Lecture 11 – Science! Review from last class: • Different stages in brain development • Habituation vs. sensitization • Stem cells -> adult cells (by neurotropic factors) • SSRIS – autoreceptors (link to depression) • Ontogeny and phylogeny CQ: Functional brain imaging techniques focus on measuring glucose, oxygen, and blood flow in the brain CQ: The goal of using whole animal manipulations in brain research is to determine how an environmental or social condition affects the brain and behavior Three ways to study the association between brain and behavior: 1. Manipulate the brain then observe the affect on behavior; p. 217 2. Look at characteristics of behavior change then observe brain change o Incremental change – linear o Step-wise change - nonlinear 3. Observe changes to brain and behavior at the same time Techniques used primarily in non-human animals (permanently alter brain): 1. Lesions/ablations – used to target damage (remove or destroy) to a specific tissue (p.218-219) o Lesion- cut the brain o Abrasion – destroy part of brain o Stereotaxic apparatus – surgical instrument that permits the researcher to target a specific part of the brain o Hypokinesia – slowness/absence of movement o Compensation – following brain damage, neuroplastic ability to modify behavior form that used prior to the damage; p. 219 2. Microscopy – taking an neuron out of the brain and looking at the structure under a microscope o Example: male and female neuron differences when stressed 3. Single-cell electrical stimulation/recoding; p. 222 Genetic techniques typically used in non-human animals: • Transgenic technique – ‘knock-in’ or ‘knock-out,’ alter genes o Optogenetics – ‘knock-in’ technology that creates receptors or ion channels that are sensitive to a specific wave length of light (can choose what part of the brain/neurons that will be affected); p. 221 § High spatial and temporal resolution 9/28/16 – 9/30/16 Midterm Exam 2 Chapter 7 Behavioral Testing – looking at a specific behavior an animal does • Choose a natural/healthy behavior an animal does to test, then measure changes • Specific to behavior function (like memory) • Ecological validity – when mice/non-human animals are in an artificial environment, the researcher has to keep in mind if the behaviors that are exhibited are because of environment or if they are natural • Example: radial maze o An animal is given time to familiarize itself with the maze and where treats are located o Results: able to see affects on memory § Able to find treat in specific places = spatial memory § Not able to find treat or revisits = error • Neuropsychology – study of the relations b/w brain function and behavior (esp. in humans); p. 211 • Behavioral neuroscience – study if biological bases of behavior in humans and other animals; p. 214 CQ: A poor candidate in behavioral testing: fainting mice Techniques used primarily in Humans: • Used to study brain structure that is only present in humans, such as language o The human brain is more complex • Animals aren’t a good model of certain behavior being observed/tested • Need to measure brain activity (non-human animals are unable to stay still) 1. Disease or damage case studies - there is no way to control where damage is located 2. Neuropsychological testing – standardized tasks to target a typical behavior (perception and memory); p.214 o Example: mirror drawing to test implicit memory Watching the Brain in Action (typically done in humans) 1. Positron Emission Tomography (PET); p. 232 o Detects changes in blood flow by measuring changes in the uptakes of compounds (such as oxygen, glucose, or NT) o Used to analyze the metabolic activity of neurons o Radioactivity to locate more active neurons in brain o Advantages: o Able to look at a particular NT system o Does permit small amount of movement o Disadvantages: o Inject radioactive material o Takes a long time for radioactivity to decay (cant be used for long- term testing) 2. functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS); p. 210 o Gathers light, transmitted through cortical tissue, to image oxygen consumption (form of optical tomography; p. 231) 9/28/16 – 9/30/16 Midterm Exam 2 Chapter 7 o High-beam light has the same wavelength as highly oxygenated blood (track blood flow) o Advantages: o Cheaper (no scanners) o No special room – portable o Disadvantages: o Cannot get deep into brain (only on surface) 3. functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI); p. 230 o Measures cerebral blood flow (oxygenated and deoxygenated) during behavior and resting o Measures changes in elements (like iron or oxygen) during the performance of a specific behavior o Advantages: o Spatial resolution o Record from entire brain o Can show repeated stimuli o Disadvantages: o Sensitive to movement o Strong magnetic field (no construction workers) Techniques used in Humans & Nonhuman Animals: 1. Pharmacologic Manipulations; p. 220 2. Microdialysis (p. 235) o Determine the chemical constituents of ECF in freely moving animals § Measure NT active by taking sample § Can also inject NT and see affect on activity o Track glutamate (after trauma) to measure how hyperactive the patient is o Doesn’t permanently alter neurons 3. Microbiome Sequencing – determines how people with brain conditions differ from ‘healthy brains’ and if gut bacteria is affected (depends on disorder) 4. Psychophysiology – measures Nervous System activity and the influence of mental activity o Autonomic system – how active in mental/emotional state o Indirect electric activity – breathing and sweating Deep Brain Stimulation • Used for severe Parkinsons and major depression • Electronodes implanted in brain (which are permanent) and when they are stimulated there is an improvement on motor activity • Effects are short-lived (days-weeks) • Usually a last resort treatment because patients adapt to electricity so it will have to increase with time Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation • Physical property that magnetic field and electric current are correlated 9/28/16 – 9/30/16 Midterm Exam 2 Chapter 7 • Magnetic field coil put on a part of brain/head and an electric current in delivered. When current is deliver, the part of brain that coil is on stimulates Measuring Brain’s Electrical Acitivity 1. Magnetoencephalography (MEG); p. 226 – observing the electrical field and its affect on the magnetic field 2. Electroencephalography (EEG); p.223 – looking at summed graded potential by putting surface electronodes and measuring brain activity o Good temporal resolution o Hard to know what is going on a part of brain 3. Event –related potentials (ERPs); p. 224 o Response to a particular stimulus o Electronodes at different points of skull o By comparing responses and when seen, we can tell what parts of the brain are active Studying Neuroanatomy • Postmortem Histology – open brain and look at it o Animal studies – lesion were we need it o Human – after death with brain damage and/or brain disease • Computerized Technology (CT); p. 226 – when alive, look at brain at different planes/angles (3D images) o Accident damage o Non-human and Human • Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI); p. 227 – magnetic force of protons to measure charge in tissue static image of brain (look at brain) o fMRI – brain activity and blood, look at how brain is acting (spatial resolution is poor) • Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI); p. 228 – axonal tracts o Subset of MRI that looks at axons CQ: Study patterns of sleep activity: electroencephalography Measuring the effect of genes on brains and behavior (p. 235) • Associations between different alleles and brain function/behavior • Epigenetic markers before/after behavior Using animals in brain and behavior research is a tricky issue… (p.239-242) • Human brains share features with other brains • There are some good (and some not so good) animal models of human disease • Animals with short lifespans allow developmental research


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