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Intro to Criminal Justice Lecture 4

by: Renata Griggs

Intro to Criminal Justice Lecture 4 Crij 2361

Marketplace > Sam Houston State University > Criminal Justice > Crij 2361 > Intro to Criminal Justice Lecture 4
Renata Griggs
Sam Houston State University
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About this Document

These notes cover what will be on our next test
Introduction to the Criminal Justice System
Dr. Franklin
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Renata Griggs on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Crij 2361 at Sam Houston State University taught by Dr. Franklin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 171 views. For similar materials see Introduction to the Criminal Justice System in Criminal Justice at Sam Houston State University.

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Date Created: 10/03/16
  Lecture 4:   Psychological Theories  Social Learning Theory  Behavior and actions developed through learning experiences  “Lead by example”  Social Learning  Imitation – Behavior modeled by one and copied by another  Rewards and punishments – Positive behavior is rewarded and  negative behavior is punished  Behavior Modeling  Family members have primary influence on the child’s behavior  Environmental Influence – Sports teams, school, church, etc.  Mass Media – Violent shows, news, etc.  Psychodynamic/ Psychoanalytic Theory  Sigmund Freud (1900’s)  Early childhood experiences (age 5)  He was interested in what happened to children under this age  Personality  ID – Necessity drive  Ego – Reality Principle: When an individual realizes that they  cannot have everything they want when they want it ( Unonscious)  SuperEgo – Stems from notions of morality and ethics. Taking the  Reality Principle and applying it to the ID (Preconscious)  Balance between all three is ideal, when one is more developed  than the other their actions can be impulsive, violent, etc.  (Conscious)  Cognitive Theory  IQ and Crime  Alfred Binet, 1903  Intelligence Quotient or IQ Test  Identify children to improve school performance  Henry Goddard, 1912  Used the test in prisons and other institutions  Determined that the individuals were feeble minded and that IQ  was related to crime  He also administered the test to immigrants and determined them  to be “Morons”  In the 1920’s the test was administered to World War 1 draftees, their  scores were similar to that of the prisoners  Problems  Eugenics  Sterilization Social Structure Theories  Crime patterns are environmental in nature  Stratified society – There are ‘haves’ and ‘have nots’  Disadvantaged communities  Violence  Drugs  Racial Disparities  Underemployment  Concentric Zone Theory  The Chicago School (1920’s)  Park and Burgess, 1920­30’s  Interested in how the City of Chicago grew  Concentric Zones  1. Central Business District  2. Transitional Zone  3. Working Class Zone  4. Residential Zone  5. Commuter Zone  As the city grows, people are pushed back into these zones being  pushed further and further from the center of the city  The city is like a habitat  Growth of a city goes in three stages  1. Invasion  2. Dominance  3. Succession  Social Disorganization Theory  Shaw and McKay  Q1: How is delinquency geographically distributed?  Concentric Zones  Q2: What are the social conditions associated with the highest level of  delinquency?  Communities that are less organized  Characteristics of Disorganization  Physical Deterioration  Poverty  Racial Heterogeneity – Difference of race  Residential Mobility  Social Disorganization: The breakdown of social controls and  institutions  Disorganization produces ineffective control of children  Ineffective control produces pockets of delinquency  Delinquent traditions are passed on  Traditions produce:  High crime rates  Stable culture of crime  Strain Theory  Also called Merton’s Strain Theory  Robert Merton  He was interested in delinquency and crime  Noticed that we are all bombarded by notions of political messages  and the American Dream  Individuals who are unable to achieve their desired goals undergo  strain and rely on illegal means  People respond in one of five ways  Conformity – Accepts goals and means  Innovation ­ Accept goals but do not achieve them and then turn to  crime  Ritualism – Reject goals, accept means  Retreatism – Reject both  Rebellion – Create new means and goals Sociological Process theories  Individuals are influenced toward crime by  Poor family relationships  Destructive peer groups  Educational failure  Criminal Justice System Labelling  Differential Association  Edwin Sutherland, 1947  Built on Disorganization Theory  Major Argument:  Exposure to antisocial attitudes and values  Definitions that are “favorable” to the law or “unfavorable to  violation of the law”  What is a policy implication of Differential Association: Big  Brother/Sister Programs  Labelling Theory  Major Argument:  By labelling individuals as delinquent, society deepens rather than  suppresses illegal behavior Feminist Criminology  Can traditional theories explain female crime?  Can traditional theories explain gender gap in offending?  Gender differences in crime rates  Difference to exposure to delinquent peers  Different levels of influence  Greater inhibitory morality in women  Women’s Pathways to Crime  There are many differences as to why and how women commit crime  75­80% of women offenders have had a history of sexual victimization so  they try to run away. If they run away, it’s a status offense in the  Criminal Justice System, if caught they are returned home. The  victimization continues.   This causes the individual to self­medicate to cope and then turn to  alternative survival strategies such as prostitution, petty theft, drug  use/sales, and then there is a lifetime of patterns of this behavior.  Developmental Theories  Global vision of a criminal career  Life course criminology – suggests that crime is this dynamic process  that is influenced by multiple individual characteristics, traits and social  experiences  Family  Peers  Vocational Achievements  Marriage  Children  The General Theory of Crime  Latent Trait Theory – Self Control  Defining Crime  Act of force or fraud done in pursuit of self interest  Low self­control  Impulsive, insensitive, physical, risk taking, short sighted, nonverbal  Crime and analogous behaviors  Produces a variety of negative outcomes  Causes


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