PSYC101, Week 6, Memory Pt. 1
PSYC101, Week 6, Memory Pt. 1 PSYC 101
Popular in General Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Wammack on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 at Boise State University taught by Brian Stone in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Boise State University.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Memory Pt. 1 9-27-16 • Memory is a complex process, involving multiple steps and time frames. • Basic Model: Sensory Memory: all incoming information is held for about 1 second (or less). Short Term memory (STM): A few items held for about 15-30 seconds; what we are aware of. We directly/actively use this information. o You may even rehearse it in your head to keep it in the STM. Long Term memory (LTM): lots of information (unlimited?) is held for long periods of time. o Can transfer back to STM to use it actively. o Encoding: storing information (transfer from STM à LTM) o Retrieval: remembering (transfer from LTM à STM) • Persistence of vision is an example of sensory memory. o We perceive it for a fraction of a second after it has moved/disappeared. • Sensory input gets transduced and sent to the brain. o But much of It is ignored and doesn’t get processed further, so we never notice it and don’t remember it. Sensory Memory • Jevons (1871) found that 4-5 objects could be reliably counted without error by memory. o 8-9 objects can be counted accurately only 50% of the time. • Averbach (1963) manipulated stimulus duration. o As stimulus duration decreased, the # of objects th at could be counted dramatically dropped dramatically. • Attention is important for sensory memory! o What you attend to gets transferred to STM. o What you don’t attend to immediately decays forever. • Sensory memory exists for multiple senses o Iconic memory (visual) ß 1 second duration o Echoic memory (auditory) ß 3-4 second duration o Also haptic (touch)…etc. • Where does sensory memory come from? o Persistent firing of nerve/neuron cells in sensory receptors and early sensory processing in the brain. Example: The dot test on the slide show. Short Term Memory • AKA…working memory (WM) • Our “window on the present” • Holds a small amount of information for a brief amount of time (<30s) • Most of the information is forgotten but some transfers to LTM. • Duration of the STM….as long as we want as long if we rehearse it. Rehearsal: repeating the stimulus either out loud (overt rehearsal) or to yourself (covert rehearsal) o We cant rehearse every piece of information indefinitely! 2 • Information doesn’t “decay” from the STM, even w/o rehearsal so why do we forget? o New or old information gets in the way. Proactive Interference: (forward-acting) o Old information (prior to learning) makes old information difficult to remember correctly. Retroactive Interference: (backwards-acting) o New information (presented since learning) makes old information difficult to remember correctly. 3
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