Intro to Psych II Chapter 12 Notes 10/3
Intro to Psych II Chapter 12 Notes 10/3 1005
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Banks on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1005 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Mr. Skyler Leonard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology 2 in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Chapter 12 - 10/3 Monday, October 3, 2016 9:33 AM • Catharsis ○ Pop-psych notion: expressing what we feel is always beneficial § "get it out" § "punch a pillow to express your anger" ○ This is true when it involves problem solving and constructive efforts ○ Catharsis can be harmful when if it reinforces a sense of helplessness or rage about something we can't change ○ Punching a pillow myth; expressing anger may actually heighten anger or anxiety in the long run • Crisis Debriefing:a single 3-4 hour session conducted soon after a trauma designed to ward off PTSD ○ Usually in groups, 1 -2 days after ○ Participants are encouraged to discuss and "process" the event and negative emotions ○ Groups are educated on PT symptoms they may experience ○ Thousands of crisis debriefers worked with the 9/11 survivors § Research shows it is not helpful, and may instead increase risk of developing PTSD □ Gets in the way of natural coping strategies • Individual Differences in Coping Individuals response to stressors in very different ways ○ ○ Different responses are in part du ttitudes, beliefs, and personality ○ Some people who survive traumatic situations come out with a much more positive outlook on the world ○ Hardinessis a set of attitudes in which( e 3 C's) § Views change as a challengerather than a threat § Is committedto one's life and work § Believes one can controlevents ○ Related to low-levels of anxiety proneness ○ Optimists: individuals with positive outlook of the world, they don't dwell on the dark side, negative § Optimistic people are more productive, more focused, and handle frustration better § Also show: □ Lower mortality □ Better immune response on the dark side, negative § Optimistic people are more productive, more focused, and handle frustration better § Also show: □ Lower mortality □ Better immune response □ Better surgical outcomes Spirituality and Religious Involvement ○ § 82% of Americans believe in God § People who describe themselves as religious □ Lower mortality rate □ Improved immune response □ Lower blood pressure § Church attendance is associated with better physical health § Hard to explain. Some possible explanations: □ Religiosity foster elf-controland prohibits risky behavior like using drugs and alcohol □ Boosts social support □ Religiosity --> increased sense of control, meaning , or optimism ○ Flexible Coping: § Ability to adjust coping strategies in a given situation --> better coping in the face of stress □ Bonnano et al. (2004)-participants who were better at flexibly controlling emotions (suppressing or expressing) in lab reported less distress in college two years later § Suppressing and avoiding emotions distracts us from problem solving and may cause emotions to return in greater force later on § To cope with stressful situations □ Accept circumstances we can't change □ Find positive ways to think about problems ○ Rumination(Nolen-Hoedsema, 1987): focusing on negatives, howbad we feel, and endlessly analyzing what caused problems § Seen more frequently women, in part due to early socialization □ Boys are discouraged from expressing emotions □ Girls are encouraged § Men tend to distract themselves or drink § Rumination contributes to gender differences in depression □ Higher rates of depression in women • Good Health and Less Stress ○ Health psychology(a.k.a. behavioral medicine): a new field that integrates behavioral sciences and the practice of medicine § Studies the influence of stress and other psychological factors on physical disorders □ Higher rates of depression in women • Good Health and Less Stress ○ Health psychology(a.k.a. behavioral medicine): a new field that integrates behavioral sciences and the practice of medicine § Studies the influence of stress and other psychological factors on physical disorders ○ Combines educational and psychological interventions to promote and maintain health, and prevent and treat illness § Help people manage stress, reduce pain, utilize social support, and live healthy lifestyles ○ 4 behaviors to promote health: 1. Quit smoking □ Smokers are more likely to suffer from depression □ Leading cause of preventable death in the US □ 21% of men and 18% of women smoke ® 1 in 5 smokers dies from smoking -related disease ® Doubles chance of dying of CHD or stroke ® Responsible for 1/3 of all cancer deaths ® Primary cause of lung disease □ Only 5% of smokers who try to quit succeed □ 25-35% succeed when using methods developed by health psychologists ® Educate people about health consequences ® Help people identify and avoid hrisk situation □ Its worth it to keep trying to quit! ® Chances of quitting increase with each try ® Quitting in first few months of pregnancy reduces risk of problem pregnancies ® After 10-15 years of not smoking, risk of premature death is close to that of having never smoked! 2. Curb drinking □ Heavy episodic drinking(b inge drinking) is five or more drinks on one occasion for men, four or more for women □ Associated with increases in cancer, liver problems, pregnancy complications, and brain shrinkage □ Controversial findings: 2 drinks per day for men, 1 for women is associated with decreased risk of hearth disease and stroke ® Alternate explanations: ◊ Drinking leads to better mood, lowering stress, then leading to better heart health ◊ Drinking leading to more activity (dancing) ◊ Recruiting social support when social drinking ◊ More money, drink more, better health care, more resources ◊ then leading to better heart health ◊ Drinking leading to more activity (dancing) ◊ Recruiting social support when social drinking ◊ More money, drink more, better health care, more resources □ We don't know how much drinking is safe, but heavy drinking is bad for your health ® Many negative effects can be reversed or minimized by abstaining 3. Achieve a healthy weight □ Obesity epidemic: ® 62% of Americans are overweight; 28% are obese ® Number of obese children and adolescents has tripled in a decade ® Largely due to decrease in physical activity □ Calculated based on body-mass index (BMI): ® Divide weight in pounds by height in inches squared, then multiply 703 ® 18.5-24.9 is Normal ® Over 30 is considered obese □ Obesity puts you at a higher risk for heart disease, stroke, arthritis, cancer, and diabetes ® Even losing 10% of weight can improve health □ The obese suffer prejudice, as well as a variety of emotional and social problems ® Teasing, depression, anxiety ® Discrimination in social life and in workplace □ Obesity is associated with decreased wealth, academic attainment, and marriage rates □ Contributors of Obesity ® Lack of adequate sleep ® Endocrine disruptors in food ® Comfortable temperatures (we don’t get to sweat or shiver away calories) ® Medicines ® Pregnancy at an older age ® Genetic influences ® Marriage of people with similar body type leads to larger couples having larger children 4. Exercise □ Avoid fads with no scientific evidence ® Exampe: weight-loss earrings □ Avoid crash diets ® Grape fruit diet, cabbage soup diet larger couples having larger children 4. Exercise □ Avoid fads with no scientific evidence ® Exampe: weight-loss earrings □ Avoid crash diets ® Grape fruit diet, cabbage soup diet ® May lose weight quickly in an unhealthy way, but most people gain it back quickly □ Exercise regularly □ Monitor total calories and body weight □ Eat properly (more good fats, fruits, and fiber, less salt, sugar, and caffeine) □ Get social support □ Control portion size □ Aerobic exercise: exercise that promotes use of oxygen in body □ Many benefits: ® Lowers blood pressure and risk for CHD ® Improves lung function ® Relieves the symptoms of arthritis ® Decreases diabetes risk ® Cuts the risk of breast and colon cancer □ 30 minutes several times a week is best • Change is Easier Said than Done ○ Non-compliance with medical recommendations § 80% don't follow physician recommendations for healthy lifestyle ○ Misestimating risk and causes of death § Availability heuristic : judging likelihood of events by ease of which it comes to mind and how frequently we hear about it § Example: overestimating frequency of shark attacks § We don't hear about heart disease, we underestimate the threat ○ Feeling powerless to change • Prevention programs ○ The earlier in life we develop unhealthy habits, the more likely they'll create problems later ○ Health psychologists try to intervene early with adolescents by: § Educating about negative consequences § Teaching to recognize and resist peer pressure § Exposing to positive role models § Teaching effective coping skills ○ We need to evaluate prevention programs to ensure their efficiency § DARE (relies on scaring kids about drugs and alcohol) doesn't show long-term effects • Complementary and Alternative Medicine § Exposing to positive role models § Teaching effective coping skills ○ We need to evaluate prevention programs to ensure their efficiency § DARE (relies on scaring kids about drugs and alcohol) doesn't show long-term effects • Complementary and Alternative Medicine ○ Alternative medicine: is used in place of conventional medicine ○ Complementary medicine: refers to products and practices that are used together with conventional medicine ○ CAM: Complementary and Alternative Medicine ○ Biological Based Therapie Vitamins, Herbs, and Food Supplements ○ Herbal Treatments § Americans spend $22 billion per year on herbal treatments Most herbal supplements and treatments have not been found to § be more effective than placebos □ St. John's Wort for depression □ Shark cartilage for cancer □ Glucosamine and chondroitin for arthritis □ Acai berries for sexual performance and energy ○ Vitamins and dietary supplements § Most haven't been supported by research □ Calcium supplements don't prevent bone density loss □ Vitamin C doesn't decrease severity or duration of colds □ Vitamin E may increase risk of prostate cancer FDA does not monitor safety, purity, or effectiveness of herbs, § vitamins, or dietary supplements like it does with medicine § "Natural" doesn't mean safe or healthy ○ Manipulative Methods § Chiropractic manipulation - the spine is manipulated to treat pain and illness □ Based on the idea that irregularities in spinal alignment negatively impact nervous and immune systems (now discredited) § Nearly 20% of Americans have seen chiropractor § No more effective than safe treatments like exercise, relaxation, pain relievers, and physical therapy § No evidence that they treat diseases like cancer, which is common purpose § Advice and support may relieve stress and create strong placebo effect ○ Mind-Body Medicine Biofeedback : feedback by a device that provides an almost- § immediate output of a biological function, such as heart rate □ In biofeedback treatment, patients learn to use feedback to § Advice and support may relieve stress and create strong placebo effect ○ Mind-Body Medicine § Biofeedback : feedback by a device that provides an almost- immediate output of a biological function, such as heart rate □ In biofeedback treatment, patients learn to use feedback to change physiological response to stress or illness ® Example: not letting heart rate race when presented with stressor □ Popular in 1970's □ Does not seem to yield effects beyond the relaxation associated with sitting quietly □ Might be better than relaxation for treating headaches § Meditation: a variety of practices that train attention and awareness □ Have cultural and religious significance □ May be used for stress reduction insight and spiritual growth □ Many styles; focuses on breath, feeling compassion for all living things □ Incorporated into some therapy practices □ Meditation is associated with a variety of positive effects : ® Heightened creativity, empathy, sfsteem ® Decreased anxiety and depression ® Increased blood flow to brain and immune function ◊ Supported by scientific research but it is not clear why it works… Energy Medicines § □ Based on the idea that disruptions in our body's energy field can be mapped and treated □ Acupuncture: ancient Chinese practice involves inserting thin needles into some of 2,000 specific points ( meridians) in the body to alter energy forces ( qi) believed to run through body □ More than 4% of Americans have tried it □ Has been shown to relieve nausea after surgery and treat pain □ No scientific evidence to support such energy or blocks in it § Placebos and CAM □ When placed against placebosC , AM does not outperform deception □ Sham acupuncture treatments do as well as "real" ones at treating back pain and migraines ® Placebos and acupuncture both stimulate release of endorphins □ Pain and depression are very highly responsive to placebo treatments, which may help to explain why CAM is so popular treating back pain and migraines ® Placebos and acupuncture both stimulate release of endorphins □ Pain and depression are very highly responsive to placebo treatments, which may help to explain why CAM is so popular □ Both CAM and conventional treatments have to consider the placebo effect in testing § Why is CAM so popular □ Possible explanations ® People assume CAM improves health because they see no negatives ® People attribute relief to CAM, not the natural course of the illness ® When used with traditional medicine, peopt tribute improvement to CAM , not less interesting conventional medicine ® People's conditions were misdiagnosed § Think Before You Try CAM □ CAM has the potential to be hazardous to your health (and wallet) □ We should keep an open but skeptical mind □ We must ask: ® Does it lack a scientific rationale, or contr-llct we accepted scientific laws or principles? ® Do carefully done studies show that the product or treatment is less effective than conventional approaches?
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