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BSC 114, Chapter 9

by: Hannah Tomlinson

BSC 114, Chapter 9 BSC 114

Hannah Tomlinson

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Cellular Respiration and Fermentation
Principles Of Biology I
Kimberly Caldwell
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Tomlinson on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 114 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Kimberly Caldwell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Principles Of Biology I in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
9/23 Chapter 9—Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Chemical Recycling  Ultimate source of energy is the sun  The chemical elements essential to life are recycled  Autotrophic organisms (green plants) convert sunlight into energy  Heterotrophs eat the plants to obtain energy catabolically Autotrophs  Green plants  Convert sunlight into energy that is stored in the bonds of organic molecules (glucose)  Anabolic process of photosynthesis  Do not need an outside supple of organic compounds Heterotrophs  Obtain energy catabolically via the breakdown of organic nutrients that must be ingested  The mitochondria of eukaryotes use the organic products of photosynthesis as a fuel for cellular respiration  Respiration harvests the energy stored in organic molecules to generate ATP (which powers cellular work)  Waste products of respiration are used by chloroplasts as raw material for photosynthesis Summary of Cellular Respiration  Organic compounds + oxygen yields carbon dioxide + water + energy  C 6 12+66O  62O + 6H2O + AT2 + heat  Glucose plays an essential role in cell metabolism  A cell must use the energy stored in food molecules to make ATP  This occurs via converting glucose (food) into energy to drive all of its functions Cellular Respiration Involves the Transfer of Electrons  The transfer of electrons is how metabolic pathways yield energy  These types of reactions are called redox reactions Oxidation and Reduction  Redox reactions: a chemical reaction resulting in the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another  Osidation: loss of electrons from a substance  Reduction: addition of electrons to a stubstance -OIL RIG (oxidation is loss, reduction is gain)  Na + Cl yields Na + Cl - -Na is oxidized and Cl is reduced -Sodium is the reducing agent -Chlorine is the oxidizing agent Cellular Respiration in Terms of Redox Reactions  Glucose is oxidized because it loses electrons  Oxygen is reduced (it gained water) and energy will be generated in the process  By oxidizing glucose respiration takes the energy out of storage and makes it available to ATP synthesis Where do the electrons go after they are cleaved?  Electrons are usually passed first to an electron acceptor—a coenzyme called NAD + + +  The transfer of 2 electrons and 1 proton reduces NAD to NADH + H  The enzyme that catalyzes this reaction is called dehydrogenase + NAD  Each NADH + H molecule formed during respiration represents stored energy that can be used to make ATP Glycolysis  Pathway to partially oxidize glucose—has 10 steps  Occurs in the cytosol  Breaks glucose into 2 molecules of pyruvate  Pyruvate is not completely oxidized, energy remains  Glycolysis uses 2 ATP and produce 4 ATP  This ATP is generated directly in a few steps of glycolysis by substrate- level phosphorylation -A mode of ATP synthesis that occurs when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate to ADP Another Product of Glycolysis  Stored energy with an electron acceptor (NAD+)  2 oxidations produce 2 NADH + H + +  Reminder: each NADH + H molecule formed during respiration represents stored energy that can be used to make ATP Overall Glycolysis  Pathway to partially oxidized glucose  Glucose    2 pyruvate  Uses 2 ATP, produces 4 ATP, net production of 2 ATP +  2 oxidations produce 2 NADH + H Cells have a choice following glycolysis…  They harvest by… -Fermentation pathway—anaerobic process (no oxygen) -Aerobic Respiration—aerobic process (with oxygen) Fermentation  If anaerobic, most organisms cannot oxidize pyruvate further  In order to keep oxidizing glucose, must reoxidize NADH + H + +  Other reactions in fermentation involve reoxidation of NADH + H  Variety of different types of fermentation can occur  Examine 2 types—named for their end products 1. Lactic acid fermentation: lactic acid is the end product 2. Alcohol fermentation: ethanol and CO are 2he end products Lactic Acid Fermentation +  Pyruvate accepts electrons from NADH + H  When reduced, pyruvate is converted to lactate  Lactic acid fermentation consists of glycolysis plus 1 reaction  Occurs in our muscle cells, if working hard and using O fas2er than blood can supply  Lactic acid fermentation still produces ATP so muscles can contract  Lactic acid builds up, causing aching  Also occurs in lactic acid bacteria—used to make sauerkraut, buttermilk, yogurt Alcohol Fermentation  Has 2 reactions after glycolysis  First reaction splits pyruvate (3C) into acetaldehyde (2C) and CO (1C2  Second reaction passes electrons to acetaldehyde to form ethanol  Alcohol fermentation carried out by yeast  Used in the production of bread and beer Fermentations  Fermentations do not oxidize glucose completely  Still much energy left in fermentation end products- lactate and ethanol  Without O ,2cannot extract more energy  Wasted energy…  Electrons end up in fermentation end products, no energy obtained  Carbon ends up in fermentation end products, still energy present since not completely oxidized Aerobic Respiration  Glucose + 6O  2CO +6H 2 2  Consists of -Glycolysis -Oxidation of pyruvate -Citric acid cycle -Electron Transport System  Important because it’s a major mechanism of releasing energy from food molecules  All cells need energy—to maintain themselves, grow, make more of themselves  Obtain energy from respiration of organic molecules If oxygen is present…  Pyruvate enters the mitochondrion, where the enzymes of the citric acid cycle complete the oxidation of pyruvate  3 events occur upon pyruvate entering the mitochondrion With oxygen 3 events occur  Pyruvate is in cytosol and never enters mitochondrion  CO 2s released and diffuses out of the cell  Th+ remaining 2-C fragment is oxidized by NAD+ resulting in NADH + H  Coenzyme A (CoA) attaches to the 2C acetyl group (this makes acetyl CoA) Citric Acid Cycle  Occurs in the mitochondria matrix  Decomposes a derivative of pyruvate to CO 2  Donates electrons to the electron transport chain  A small amount of ATP is generated by substrate-level phosphorylation Citric Acid Cycle Details  It takes 2 turns of the cycle to fully oxidize the original glucose molecule that entered the cycle as 2 molecules of acetyl CoA  2 different electron carriers: NAD and FAD (Flavin adenine dinucleotide)  The citric acid cycle yields: -Electrons that will be transported to electron transport chain -2 ATP—produced via substrate level phosphorylation Fate of electrons removed in citric acid cycle  There is energy in the electrons removed by NAD and FAD in citric acid cycle  Energy of electrons converted to ATP energy by Electron Transport System Electron Transport System  The electron transport chain is embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion  As electrons are passed from one carrier to the next, they lose energy, which can be converted to ATP energy  Electrons are passed down a series of steps from one molecule to another until they reach the final electron acceptor (O )2  They are combined with hydrogen ions and molecular oxygen to form water Electron Transport  Accepts electrons from the breakdow+ product 2f both glycolysis and citric acid cycle (from NADH + H to FADH )  Enough energy released from -NADH to form 3 ATP -FADH 2o form 2 ATO Mitochondria  Powerhouse of the cell- most of ATP of respiration made there  Electron carriers of ETS embedded in membrane (cristae) Electron transport does not make ATP directly  The energy released at each step of the chain is stored in a form the mitochondria can use to make ATP – this mode of ATP synthesis is called oxidative phosphorylation -ATP synthesis powered by the transfer of electrons to oxygen -Accounts for almost 90% of the ATP generated by respiration Synthesis of ATP  Chemiosmosis: a mechanism for energy coupling +  A H gradient is used to transfer energy from redox reactions to the synthesis of ATP  Protein complex called ATP synthase is used ATP Synthase  Located in the inner membrane of mitochondria (many of the copies of it)  It is the enzyme that actually makes ATP  It has specialized channels in the inner membrane of the mitochondria that allow hydrogen ions to pass through How does ATP synthase work?  There are a lot of ions in the inner membrane of the mitochondria from the ETC  As electrons are passed down the chain, protons (hydrogen) are pumped out into the matrix  A H gradient forms and then they flow down their gradient through an H channel in ATP synthase molecules CQ: Which equation best summarizes cellular respiration? C 6 12+ 6O  6C2 + 6H O2+ ATP2+ heat CQ: A single glucose molecule is used. How many pyruvates are produced? 2 CQ: In a specific glycolysis reaction, 10 pyruvate molecules are produced. From this info, we know that this reaction started with ___ glucose molecules. 5 CQ: Following the breakdown of glucose by glycolysis, if there are no oxygen present organisms will undergo FERMENTATION CQ: Fermentations are inefficient and waste some energy. TRUE


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