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## Chemistry 111 Notes 3.5 and 3.6

by: Makayla Richardson

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# Chemistry 111 Notes 3.5 and 3.6 CHEM 111 - 02

Makayla Richardson
NMSU

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This is just a quick introduction to Quantum Mechanics and Schrodinger's equations. It covers the concepts of both seeing as for an introductory chemistry we do not need to go into intense detail.
COURSE
General Chemistry I
PROF.
Dr. Antonio Lara
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
3
WORDS
CONCEPTS
General Chemistry
KARMA
25 ?

## Popular in Chemistry and Biochemistry

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Makayla Richardson on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 111 - 02 at New Mexico State University taught by Dr. Antonio Lara in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry and Biochemistry at New Mexico State University.

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Date Created: 10/03/16
Electrons as Waves 3.5 and 3.6 1. De Broglie Wavelenghts  Calculati2g wavelengths using Einstien’s equation relating mass and energy: ­ E=mc  And the energy of a photon equation: hc ­ E= λ  De Broglie’s equation is a combination: h ­ λ = mu ­ h=¿ Plancks Constant ­ m=¿ mass of the electron in kg ­ u=¿  speed m/s  This equation can determine any moving particle, not just electrons.   Matter Wave: a wave with any moving particle.  Now practice De Broglie’s equation by inserting: m=0.142 kg and u=44 m/s.  Your answer should be 7.1x10 ­32  De Broglie proposed that the electrons actually move around the nucleus in  circular waves.   Standing Wave: a wave confined to a certain space with wavelength fitting inside  the given space.    Nodes: a location in the standing wave that experience no movement. ­Ex: picture a wavelength and the spaces right in between the crests and troughs is where the node is. It hardly seems to move, even though the wavelength is  continuous.  (Sorry my wavelength is kinds rough looking)  De Broglie also worked on a formula for finding wavelength per crest and trough. nλ ­ L= 2 ­ n= whole number equal to 1  They could also find the circumference of the orbit by C=n 2. The Heisenberg Constant Uncertainty Principle  Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle: the principle that you cannot know both the  exact location of an electron or its exact momentum, only one or the other.   ∆ x∗m∆u≥ h 4π ­ ∆ x  is the uncertainty of the position of the electron, may not be exact. ­ m  is the mass ­ ∆ u  (also seen as ∆ p ) is the uncertain velocity  ­ h is Plancks Constant  3. Quantum Numbers  and Schrodinger  Quantum Mechanic (Wave Mechanics): mathematical description of an electrons  and particles wave­like movements.   Schrodinger Wave Equation: description of how the electron wave moves and  varies with location and time around the nucleus. Was only conducted with  hydrogen atoms because of the simplicity.  ­Wave Functions ( ψ¿ : the solution to Schrodinger Equation. I won’t spend too much time on Schrodinger and his equations because it is not entirely relevant  at the moment, you just need to understand the concept.  A) Orbitals  Space within an atom where finding an electron has a high probability.  Orbitals with large values of n have high energy and are far from the nucleus.  Orbitals with the same value of n are in the same shell and closer to the nucleus.  B) Quantum Numbers of Orbitals in the First Four Shells Numbers  Of  Orbitals In: Value Allowed Subshell Allowed values of Subshell Shell of n values of l letter m l 1 0 s 0 1 1 whic 0 s 0 1 4 1 p ­1,0,+1 3 3 0 s 0 1 9 1 p ­1,0,+1 3 2 d ­2,­1,0,+1,+2 5 4 0 s 0 1 16 1 p ­1,0,+1 3 2 d ­2,­1,0,+1,+2 5 3 f ­3,­2,­1,0,+1,+2,+3 7 Value of l 0 1 2 3 4 Letter ID s p d f g  m:lis the magnetic quantum number, defines the location of an orbital in the space around the nucleus.   n: is the principle quantum number that describes the relative size and energy of an  orbital.   Another value to remember is the spin quantum number, m , which issthe unique address  for each electron in each orbital. (also known as Pauli Exclusion Principle.)

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