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BISC 1005 Week 5

by: Jaimee Kidd

BISC 1005 Week 5 BISC 1005

Jaimee Kidd
GPA 3.6

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The Biology of Nutrition and Health
Scully, T
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaimee Kidd on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BISC 1005 at George Washington University taught by Scully, T in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see The Biology of Nutrition and Health in Biology at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
Where Are Those Trans Fats? Lipids/Fats  • Fatty acids ◦ Phospholipids ◦ Triglycerides • Cholesterol Quick Lesson on Terminology  • Lipid ◦ A category of substances including fats, phospholipids, triglycerides, and  cholesterol ◦ All hate water = hydrophobic • Fat ◦ Condensed name for fatty acids • Cholesterol ◦ Molecule found on the food label and necessary for life • Blood cholesterol ◦ HUGE!!!! Complex of: protein, cholesterol, phospholipids, and fats!!! ­ not 1  substance… Fats aka fatty acids  • hydrocarbon chain with single links are called saturated fatty acids • hydrocarbon chain with at least one double link are called unsaturated fatty acids How Bad Are Trans Fats?  • Trans fats change the ratio of the two types of cholesterols in our blood: LDL and HDL ◦ LDL­ Low Density Lipoprotein ◦ HDL­ High Density Lipoprotein ◦ They are in charge of carrying your fats to cells that need it ◦ increasing the risk of heart disease ◦ Experts estimate that trans fats contribute to 30,000­100,000 deaths per year from  heart disease • Trans fats can be found in any foods containing hydrogenated oils  When do we regulate?  • Given: ◦ Trans fats, found in everything from cooking oil to Oreos, have been linked to the development of heart disease Function of fat  • Cells: ◦ Make up the membranes of cell and all internal compartments ◦ Signals ◦ Energy production • Body: ◦ Energy aka heat ◦ Cushioning ◦ Insulation ◦ Component of LDL and HDL Fats are cell membranes  • Phospholipids ◦ two hydrophobic fats (hydrophobic) linked to phosphate group (hydrophilic) • When exposed to water, phospholipids form a phospholipid bilayer Triglycerides  • Three fatty acid molecules bonded to a glycerol molecule make up a triglyceride • BUILT FROM ◦ Saturated fatty acids are known as fats and are solid at room temperature ◦ unsaturated fatty acids tend to be liquid at room temperature and are called oils • Energy store as triglycerides deposited in cells • Lipids contain more than twice the energy of protein or carbohydrates of the same  volume • Two types of fat tissue (adipose) ◦ Brown  ◦ White • Lipolysis ◦ Breakdown of lipids to create heat/chemical energy • Ketosis ◦ Breakdown of lipids to increase bloodstream energy Cholesterol  • lipids that contain four hydrocarbon rings fused together: sterol • Cholesterol is a vital component of cell membranes and is the starting molecule for many  other sterols and steroid hormones • Cardiovascular disease?? ◦ LDL and HDL carry cholesterol and other fats to/away form cells • Cholesterol is used to make other things: ◦ differ only in the number, type, and position of ingredients attached to the  hydrocarbon rings ◦ hormones are signaling molecules that are active at low levels and control many  processes in plants and animals: testosterone, estrogen, and vitamin D are sterols      What is an anabolic steroid?  ◦ Similar in shape to testosterone but not exactly the same  • Function of Cholesterol ◦ Cells:  ▪ Make up the membranes of cells Sodium  • Ion ◦ Atom with a charge • Normally found as an additive • Salt­sodium chloride ◦ Crystalline structure • Cellular: ◦ Barrier ◦ Signaling • Body: ◦ Pressure exerted on entire system to balance out the difference in sodium in the  bloodstream Bigger is Better  • Monomers ◦ Individual unites of a macromolecule • Polymers ◦ Chains of monomers bonded together 1 Carbohydrates 2 Proteins 3 Nucleic Acids ◦ How are they linked? 1 Water—> add water or subtract water to create or destroy molecules Carbohydrates  • Food Label • Sugars­ (technically not all carbs are sugars but all sugars are carbs) ◦ Monosaccharide: Glucose and fructose 1 Rings of hydrocarbon and oxygen 2 LOVES water­ hydrophillic ◦ Disaccharide: table sugar (sucrose) formed when two monocasscharides, glucose  and fructose, are bonded  ◦ Polysaccharides 1 Large polymers built by linking many monosaccharides together 1 Fiber 2 Starch ◦ Glucose is monomer for most common polysaccharides 1 Cellulose and starch are both found in plants  2 Three different structures in a grain 1 Bran: contains fiber 2 Endosperms: contains starch and proteins such as gluten 3 Germ: contains vitamins, minerals, lipids, and pytochemicals 3 Glycogen: is a highly branched polysaccharide that stores energy in animal cells  for rapid release when needed, created when you have glucose 4 Chitin: is produced in fungi and invertebrate for structural purposes  • Confusing sugar/carb labeling ◦ Total carbs: 25grams 1 Fiber: separate from other carbs, has own recommended daily values 2 Sugars: (mono and di) 3 Starch: not listed 4 Sugars + Fiber + Starch = 25 grams of carbs • Function of carbohydrates ◦ Cells: 1 Energy production 2 Make cells stick to one another 3 allow signals to stick to docking stations ◦ Body: 1 Energy 2 Fiber 1 Satiated 2 Cleansing 3 Reduce/slow absorption Proteins  • Function 1 Cells: 1 Storage 2 Structure 3 Transport 4 Catalysis 5 Defense 6 Communication 7 Gene regulation • Eight essential amino acids must be obtained from foods (meaning you can’t make them  in your body) • The structure of enzymes 1 very specific for reactions 2 Three­dimensional shape determines function 3 Active site is area within the enzyme 1 Substrate (reactant­lactose) binds to site 2 Products (glucose and galactose)


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