BSC 1005 Lecture 10
BSC 1005 Lecture 10 BSC 1005
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cristina Rodriguez on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 1005 at Florida Atlantic University taught by Diane Lowell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Lecture 10 Vocab Chromosomes = a very long molecule of DNA tightly packed with proteins Sister chromatids = two identical, sidebyside copies of a chromosome that are linked at the centromere Centromere = specialized part of chromosome where sister chromatids join Karyotype = specific number of chromosomes found in a species Mitosis = division of nucleus and chromosomes Cytokinesis = physical division of the cell into two daughter cells Mitotic spindle = the structure that separates sister chromatids during mitosis Apotosis = cellular suicide Tumor = a mass of cells resulting from uncontrolled cell division Metastasis = the spread of cancer cells from one location in the body to another Radiation therapy = using high energy radiation beams to kill dividing cells Chemotherapy = using drugs to kill dividing cells Taxol = highly effective chemotherapy agent Lecture 10 Information Cell division Growth One fertilized egg cell begins to divide Develops into a mature multicellular organism Adults Replace worn out cells Repair damage and heal wounds Before cell division Cellular components must be duplicated Cell cycle G 0phase Exit from cell cycle Can last days to years Some cells will enter cell cycle again Some will stay in the G 0 phase Interphase Longest phase of the cell cycle Cell duplicated organelles, DNA and cytoplasm Divided into three phases G ph1 e = cell grows and makes extra cytoplasm S phase = DNA synthesis resulting in chromosomes with identical sister chromatids G p2ase = cell prepares for division Chromosomes are visible during mitosis Human karyotype = 46 chromosomes Number of chromosomes does not determine the complexity of the species Mitosis Chromosomes are evenly divided Sister chromatids are separated Occurs in series of phases Prophase replication of chromosomes begin to coil up the nuclear membrane begins to disassemble Microtubule fibers begin to form the mitotic spindle Metaphase Microtubule spindle fibers form opposite ends of the cell attach to the sister chromatids of each chromosome Replicated chromosomes become aligned along the middle of the cell Anaphase Microtubules shorten, pulling the sister chromatids to opposite ends of the cell Telophase Identical sets of chromosomes reach each pole Microtubule spindle fibers disassemble Nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes, forming the daughter cell nuclei Cytokinesis Animal cells the cell membrane pinches into separate the daughter cells Cytokinesis in plant cells involve the synthesis of a new cell wall between the daughter cells Cytokinesis Enlarged cell splits into two cells One parent cell splits into two daughter cells Each cell has full complement of DNA Microtubules Hollow protein fibers Components of cytoskeleton Attach to centromere on chromosome with the help of kinetochore proteins Cancer Invades normal cells Fighting cancer Surgery Radiation therapy chemotherapy
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