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Chemistry Week 3

by: Rheanna Gimple

Chemistry Week 3 CHEM 113

Rheanna Gimple

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Week three of Thermodynamics
General Chemistry 2 (CHEM 113)
Staff, Chem
Class Notes
Thermodynamics, General Chemistry, Chemistry, week three, Lecture Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rheanna Gimple on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 113 at Colorado State University taught by Staff, Chem in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 2 (CHEM 113) in Chemistry at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
Thermodynamics Week 3:  Calculating entropy changes o o o ∆S = ∑ n ∆S (products) - ∑ m ∆S (reactants) o Entropy is a state function because it doesn't matter how you get there, just that you get there  The path between start and finish doesn't matter o Formation reaction: forms 1 mole from most stable form or reactants  Free Energy o Gibbs free energy (∆G) - dictates spontaneity of process at constant temperature ∆G = ∆H - T∆ system system system o If ∆G sign:  ∆G<0, forward reaction is spontaneous  ∆G>0 reverse reaction is spontaneous  ∆G = 0 system is at equilibrium o a spontaneous process will continue until it reaches an energy minimum (equilibrium) o at a constant temperature and pressure free energy will always decrease in a spontaneous process o Standard free energy changes: cao be calculated from standard free energies of formation (∆G )f ∆G = ∑n∆G (products) - ∑m∆G (reactants) o f f  n and m are the stoichiometric coefficients  ∆G of an element in standard state is 0  Temperature and Spontaneity ∆G = ∆H - T∆S  If ∆H is negative and ∆S is positive, it’s always spontaneous  If ∆H is positive and ∆S is negative, it’s nonspontaneous  If both ∆H and ∆S are negative, it’s spontaneous at low temperatures  If both ∆H and ∆S are positive, it’s spontaneous at high temperatures  Free energy under nonstandard conditions o For general reaction aA + bB  dD + eE ∆G reaction= ∆G oreaction RT lnQ  R = 8.314 J/mol K  Q = reaction quotient d e ( D ( )E Q = a b ( A( ) B  Driving human Engine: Coupled Reactions o Non-spontaneous reaction can happen spontaneously if it is coupled with a very spontaneous reaction  Ex: Respiration and the synthesis of ATP C 6 12+66O 2 6CO 2 6H O 2G = -2870kJ o Very spontaneous reaction H 2O +4ADP -> ATP + H O 2 ∆G = 30.6 kJ o Non-spontaneous reaction  Energy released from respiration provides energy for synthesizing of ATP o Magnitude of spontaneous reaction must be larger than non-spontaneous reaction


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