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PSYC3890: Chapter 9

by: Brittany Ariana Borzillo

PSYC3890: Chapter 9 PSYC3980

Brittany Ariana Borzillo
GPA 3.7

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Research Methods in Psychology
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Ariana Borzillo on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC3980 at University of Georgia taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychology in Psychology at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
Chapter 9: Multivariate Studies  Making an association claim regarding more than 2 measured variables  Help to control for some causal requirements o Still unable to claim causation  Deals most with covariance, temporal precedence, and internal validity Longitudinal  Often used in developmental psychology  Same variables with same individuals over the course of time  Help establish temporal precedence o measuring the same variables at several points of time o measuring two different variables at two different points of time  Covariance o When two variables are significantly correlated there is covariance  Temporal Precedence o Helps researchers make inferences about temporal precedence  Internal validity o Fail to help rule out third variables  Cross-Sectional o 2 variables measured at the same time point o test whether two variables that are measured at the same point of time are related  Autocorrelation o Variable and itself measured after a change in time  Cross-lag Correlation o Earlier measure of one variable with later measure of the other variable o Two cross-lag correlations address the directionality problem and helps further establish temporal precedence o Allows investigation of how people change over time o Patterns  Variable 1 at time 1 is strongly correlated with variable 2 at time 2 while variable 2 at time 1 is not strongly correlated with variable 1 at time 2  Variable 2 at time 1 is strongly correlated with variable 1 at time 2 while variable 1 at time 1 is not strongly correlated with variable 2 at time 2  Both conditions above may be significant  Potential Results o Can gain insight into temporal precedence  Compare strength of cross-lagged correlations  Significance of both is a reciprocal relationship o Still lack control  Useful when you can’t randomly assign participants Multiple Regression  Similar to correlation o Exception is that there are more than 2 variables  Helps control for 3 variable problems  Helps determine how well relations hold when other variables are controlled for  Regression o Criterion  dependent variable o Predictor  independent variable o   relationship between each independent variable and dependent variable while controlling for the other independent variables  interpreted the same was as correlation ®  refers to “unique” variance  can compare the relative effects of each independent variable  may be represented as “b”  unstandardized  p-values indicate the significance of relationships o regression does not imply causation  can’t establish temporal precedence  can’t control for variables that aren’t measured o statistically controlling for third variables  when looking at the effect of one variable, all other variable predictors are held constant  regression does not imply causation Pattern and Parsimony  accept results that provide the simplest explanation for the pattern of the data  still need multiple diverse studies to decrease 3 variable explanations Mediation  explains the relationship between two variables  test of mediation o assess c, then a, then b  must be related o regression with both independent variable and mediator  see how c is affected  how moderators differ o influences the strength of a relationship between two other variables 4 Validities  internal validity o statistical inferences about causal effects are valid for the population being studied o want  to be unbiased and consistent  construct validity o still need to assess how each variable is measured  external validity o sampling still matters because you won’t be able to assess an entire population o generizability  statistical validity o effect size o statistical significance o subgroups o outliers o curvilinear ***I’m not claiming rights to this picture; I merely feel it’ll be helpful for everybody’s studies***


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