PSYC 1101 Week 7
PSYC 1101 Week 7 PSYC 1101
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeline Pearce on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Trina Cyterski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
PSYC 1101 Week 7 Notes Chapter 7: Cognition (cont’d) ● Decision-making: process of cognition that involves identifying, evaluating, and choosing among several alternatives ○ Trial and Error ○ Algorithms (step-by-step, works every time) ○ Heuristics (generally effective but not all the time) ■ Representative heuristic: assumption that any object or person sharing characteristics with the members of a particular category is also a member of that category ■ Availability heuristic: estimating the frequency or likelihood of an event based on how easy it is to think of related examples ■ Working backwards from the goal is a useful heuristic (restructuring) ● Problem solving - barriers ○ Insight ○ Confirmation bias: tendency to search for evidence that fits one's beliefs and ignoring other evidence ○ Functional fixedness: a block to problem solving that comes from thinking about objects only in terms of their typical contexts ○ Mental set: tendency for people to persist in using problem solving patterns that have worked for them in the past ● Intelligence: the ability to learn from one's experiences, acquire knowledge, and use resources effectively in problem-solving and adaptation ○ Charles Spearman ■ G Factor: general intelligence ■ S factor: specific intelligence ■ ○ Gardner's multiple intelligences 1 ○ Sternberg's triarchic Theory ○ Alfred Binet and Paris school children 2 “In 1899, Binet was asked to be a member of the Free Society for the Psychological Study of the Child. French education changed profusely during the end of the nineteenth century, because of a law that passed which made it mandatory for children ages six to fourteen to attend school. This group to which Binet became a member hoped to begin studying children in a scientific manner. Binet and many other members of the society were appointed to the Commission for the Retarded. The question became "What should be the test given to children thought to possibly have learning disabilities, that might place them in a special classroom?" Binet made it his problem to establish the differences that separate the normal child from the abnormal, and to measure such differences. L'Etude experimentale de l'intelligence (Experimental Studies of Intelligence) was the book he used to describe his methods and it was published in 1903. Development of more tests and investigations began soon after the book, with the help of a young medical student named Theodore Simon. Simon had nominated himself a few years before as Binet's research assistant and worked with him on the intelligence tests that Binet is known for, which share Simon's name as well. In 1905, a new test for measuring intelligence was introduced and simply called the Binet-Simon scale. In 1908, they revised the scale, dropping, modifying, and adding tests and also arranging them according to age levels from three to thirteen. Binet published the third version of the Binet-Simon scale right before he died in 1911, but it was still unfinished. If it were not for his early death, Binet surely would have continued to revise the scale. Still, the Binet-Simon scale was and is hugely popular around the world, mainly because it is easy to give and fairly brief.” (http://muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/binet.htm) 3 ● Lewis terman ○ Read developed the Binet Simon scale of intelligence, now to be called stanford-binet test ○ Known for studies with gifted children ○ “Termans termites” ○ Found, among other things, that the gifted were taller, healthier, physically better developed, superior in leadership and social adaptability, dispelling the often held contrary opinion ● IQ:Number representing a measure of intelligence comment resulting from division of one's mental age by one's chronological age and multiplying the quotient by 100 ○ WAIS: Wechsler adult intelligence scale ○ WISC: Wechsler intelligence scale for children ● Reliability: tendency of a test to produce the same scores again and again each time it is given to the same people ● Validity: the degree to which a test actually measures what it's supposed to measure ● Standardization: the process of giving it the test to a large group of people that represents the kind of people for whom the test is designed ● Deviation IQ scores: a measure of intelligence that assumes that IQ is normally distributed around a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15 ○ IQ of 130 (gifted) is two standard deviations above the mean ○ IQ of 70 (disabled) is two standard deviations below the mean ● cultural bias ○ researchers strive for bias free tests ● Usefulness ○ IQ tests are generally valid for predicting academic and/or job success ○ Neuropsychological aspect: head injury, learning disabilities, neuropsychological disorders can affect the outcome of test results 4 ● intellectual disabilities ○ can vary from mild to profound ○ developmental delay causes ■ deprived environments ■ chromosome and or genetic disorders ■ fetal alcohol syndrome ■ dietary deficiencies ■ environmental toxins ● Giftedness ○ gifted: the 2 percent of the population falling on the upper end of the normal curve typically possessing an IQ of more than 130 points ○ terman conducted a longitudinal study that demonstrated that gifted children grow up to be successful adults ○ criticized for lack of objectivity ○ emotional intelligence: awareness and ability to manage one's own emotions, be self-motivated, feel what others feel (empathy), and be socially skilled ● Heredity and environment ○ stronger correlations are found of genetic similarity increases ○ heritability of IQ is approximately 0.5 ○ Flynn effect: IQ score steadily increase over time and modernize civilizations ○ the bell curve: highly controversial book published on IQ and hereditary/environmental influences Language ● Language: a system for combining symbols and words so that an unlimited number of meaningful statements can be made for the purpose of communicating with others ○ Piaget= Concepts come before language ○ Vygotsky= Language comes before concepts ● grammar: system of rules governing the structure and use of language ● Phonemes: basic units of sound in a language ● morphemes: smallest units of meaning within a language ● Syntax: the system of rules for combining words and phrases to form grammatically correct sentences ● Semantics: rules for determining the meaning of words and sentences ● Pragmatics: aspects of language involving the practical ways of communicating with others, or the social niceties of language 5 Language and Cognition ● Linguistic relativity hypothesis: the theory that processes and concepts are controlled by language ● Cognitive Universalism: theory that concepts are universal and influence the development of language ○ Studies have been somewhat successful in demonstrating that animals can develop a basic kind of language, including some abstract ideas ○ Controversy exists of the lack of evidence that animals can learn and comprehend syntax, which some feel means that animals are not truly learning and using language Chapter 8: Development Across the Lifespan Developmental Research Designs ● Human development: the scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age from conception until death ● Longitudinal design: research design in which one participant or group of participants is studied over a long period of time ○ Cohort effect: impact on development when a group of people share common time period or life experience ● Cross-sectional design: research design in which several different age groups of participants are studied at one particular point in time ● Cross-sequential design: research design in which participants are first studied by means of a cross-sectional design but also followed and assessed for a period of no more than six years 6 ● Nature v. Nurture ● Nature: the influence of our inherited characteristics on our personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions ● Nurture: the influence of the environment on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions ● Behavioral genetics: focuses on nature vs. nurture Genetics and Development ● Genetics: the science of inherited traits behavioral genetics ● DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): special molecule that contains the genetic material of the organism In this model of a DNA molecule, the two strands making up the sides of the “twisted ladder” are composed of sugars and phosphates. The “rungs” of the ladder that link the two strands are amines. Amines contain the genetic codes for building the proteins that make up organic life. ● Gene: section of DNA having a certain pattern of chemical elements ○ dominant: referring to a gene that actively controls the expression of a trait ○ recessive: referring to a gene that only influences the expression of a trait when paired with an identical gene 7 8 ● Chromosome: tightly wound strand of genetic material or DNA ● Chromosome disorders include Down syndrome, Klinefelter’s syndrome, and Turner’s syndrome ● Genetic disorders include PKU, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, and Tay-Sachs disease ● Conception: the moment at which a female becomes pregnant ● Ovum: the female sex cell, or egg ● Fertilization: the union of the ovum and sperm ● Zygote: cell resulting from the uniting of the ovum and sperm; divides into many cells, eventually forming the baby Conception and Twins ● Monozygotic twins: aka identical twins; formed when one zygote splits into two separate masses of cells, each of which develops into a separate embryo ● Dizygotic twins: aka fraternal twins; occur when two eggs get fertilized by two different sperm, resulting in the development of two zygotes in the uterus at the same time 9 10 ● Periods of Pregnancy ● Germinal period: first two weeks after fertilization, during which the zygote moves down to the uterus and begins to implant in the lining ○ embryo is the name for the developing organism from two weeks to eight weeks after fertilization ● Embryonic period: the period from two to eight weeks after fertilization, during which the major organs and structures of the organism develop ○ critical periods: times during which certain environmental influences can have an impact on the development of the infant ○ teratogen: any factor that can cause a birth defect ● Fetal period: the time from about eight weeks after conception until the birth of the child ○ fetus: name for the developing organism from eight weeks after fertilization to the birth of the baby ○ viability: the point at which it is possible for an infant to survive outside the womb, usually about 22-26 weeks Infantile Reflexes ● Infants are born with reflexes that help them survive ○ Grasping ○ Moro (startle) ○ Rooting ○ Stepping ○ Sucking 11
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