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Psy 130, Week 4 Notes

by: Leilanie Gonzalez

Psy 130, Week 4 Notes Psy 130

Leilanie Gonzalez


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About this Document

These notes cover material leading up to our first exam
Critical Thinking
Marianne Grosvenor
Class Notes
memory, critical thinking
25 ?




Popular in Critical Thinking

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leilanie Gonzalez on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 130 at California State University - Long Beach taught by Marianne Grosvenor in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Critical Thinking in Psychology (PSYC) at California State University - Long Beach.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
Week 4 Monday, September 12, 2016-4 The brain abhors a vacuum (brain doesn’t like empty spaces) - Bits and pieces of information from an experience are stored in different parts of the brain, leaving various gaps in the story - The brain fills in information that was not there - All our memories are reconstructed memories o They are the product of what we originally experienced plus everything that happened afterwards o Memories are dynamic and malleable o We all need to be cautious that the accuracy of our memories is not measured in how vivid they are nor how certain you are that they are correct Types of Memory - Declarative Memory o Part of long-term memory o Can be consciously recalled or “declared”  Consists of:  Episodic memory (personal history, anything you experienced) o Memory for events you participated in  Semantic memory (something you learned, e.g. definitions of words) o Memory of facts - Motor and Procedural Memory o Part of long-term memory o Unconscious  Motor memory  Memory for motor skills (eg. How to ride a bike)  Procedural memory  Memory for how to do something that doesn’t involve motor skills (eg. How to read) Studying Techniques 1. Rewrite your lecture notes from memory - Read a section of notes, cover it and then try to reproduce it from memory - Repeat 2. Teach someone else - How does a synapse work? 3. Study in short frequent intervals - Take breaks 4. Create mnemonics - Use the first letter of each word to make a sentence or phrase - Seven sins of memory: TABMSBP - Three parts of memory: ESR Wednesday, September 14, 2016 Thought and Language How language influences us: - Shapes our thoughts - Modifies our perception - Creates our reality Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis of Linguistic Relativity - The language we speak and think in shapes the way we perceive the world - The existence of the various language systems implies that the people who think in these different languages must perceive the world differently - The grammatical categories available in a particular language (gender, number, time) not only help users of that language to perceive the world in a certain way but also at the same time limit such perception Definitions - A clear argument often depends on the clear and accurate definition of terms - Definitions are not static “truths” o Meanings may change over time - Don’t make a definition too broad or too narrow Misleading and Persuasive Language o Being able to separate emotional and informational language is a key component of understanding and evaluating an argument o Sometimes emotional language is used when there is a lack of real reasons for accepting a conclusion - Emotional Language o Is intended to create in the reader the same attitude and feelings toward a subject, rather than increase the reader’s knowledge o Appeal to emotion is a logical fallacy  This is when emotions are used in place of evidence o Emotive words and false analogies may be used to provoke emotion and blur rationality  Analogy: a similarity between features of two things  Ex: a heart and a pump  Positive emotive words: motherhood, honesty, integrity  Negative emotive words: rape, cancer, evil  False analogies: “the cancer of society” and “raping the environment” - Euphemisms o The substitution of a desirable term for a less desirable or offensive one  Can obscure the meaning of words  The hope is that feelings will be less negative with a more desirable term - Framing o The way a choice or problem is presented can influence decision making  Choices can be presented as a loss or gain  “of 100 patients who have this operation, 90 are alive after 5 years”  “of 100 patients who have this operation, 10 are dead after 5 years”  “if you use energy conservation methods, you will save $350 per year”  “if you do not use energy conservation methods, you will lose $350 per year” o Most people are risk adverse, which means they prefer options that don’t involve loss  Framing works because people tend to be somewhat mindless, passive decision makers Categorization - Classifying people, objects, and events into groups based on similar characteristics - Cognitive economy o A process that reduces the mental workload and makes thinking less effortful - Prototype o The best example of a category  An eagle is a prototype of the bird category - Stereotypes can result from categorical thinking o Beliefs that members of a group tend to more or less to have particular types of characteristics o We overgeneralize from limited observations and from information learned from parents, peers, and the media - Categorization can cause serious errors in thinking


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