Week 5 Notes
Week 5 Notes BIOL 1504.9HO
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Takira Boyd on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1504.9HO at Kankakee Community College taught by Mr. Mager in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Kankakee Community College.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Principles of Biology BIOL 1504.9HO Week 5 Notes 4.1 Energy & Metabolism Bioenergetics describes the flow of energy through living things. Metabolism a chemical reaction that takes place inside cells that either consume or produce energy Anabolic two processes where one requires energy and the other produces it (build polymers) Catabolic break down polymers and turn them into monomers (See Figure 4.3) Thermodynamics the study of energy transfer with physical matter Two systems: open and closed. Open Systems energy exchanges with its surroundings, Ex: A stovetop system (heat can be lost in the air) Closed Systems energy cannot exchange with its surroundings Biological organisms are considered open systems The Law of Thermodynamics governs energy transfer Energy is defined as the ability to do or create a change Thermodynamics 1 Law Energy (the total amount) is conserved and constant in the universe (There has always been, and will be the same amount of energy present in the universe), Energy can be moved from one place to another but cannot be created or destroyed. 2 Law Tasks are harder than they appear. In every energy transfer there is some amount of energy lost which makes some of in unusable. Energy will always be lost as heat in transfers/ transformations Heat Energy an energy transfer where it is not work. Ex: A light bulb being turned on (light energy is lost as heat energy) Entropy a disorder or measure of randomness High Entropy high disorder, low energy Kinetic Energy movement of an object Potential Energy energy related to the potential of the object (ability of the object= measure of energy) Ex: A ball falling PE=KE Potential Energy includes matter location and matter structure. Ex: A spring on the ground, and a rubber band that is being pulled taught Chemical Energy provides energy (food). Energy release happens when molecular bonds in food molecules are broken down. Free and Activation Energy Negative Number Chemical Reaction Energy changes to free energy, Free Energy (delta G), the products of these reactions will also have less free energy Exergonic (editing the system) Energy A reaction that has free energy that is constantly negative and consequently releases free energy. If energy is absorbed (instead of released) in a chemical reaction = the reaction will have positive value. Endergonic Reaction The activation energy for the reaction is typically larger than the overall energy of the exergonic reaction. Ex: Photosynthesis Non spontaneous Will not happen on its own= needs free energy Activation Energy the energy required to start a reaction, the rate of reaction is given by the Arrhenius equation, Ex: Enzymes. Enzymes Helps chemical reactions happen, molecules that catalyze biochemical reactions Substrates enzyme binders Active Site a place in the enzyme where substrates bind (action happens) TEMP= REACTION RATES Temp outside of optimal range ENZYME CATALYZE REACTION Hot temp causes the enzymes to denature (break down bonds) = loss of the shape and function of the enzyme. Enzymes function best in a specific pH and salt concentration “Lock and Key” Model describes enzyme and substrate binding. (See Figure 4.8 for clarification) Inhibition (See Figure 4.9 for clarification) Competitive Inhibition Substrates are similar to enzymes and blocks the active site= substrate binding is not possible Non Competitive Inhibition the inhibitor reduces the activity of the enzyme and binds to the enzyme whether or not it has already bound the substrate. Allosteric Inhibitiona regulatory molecule binds to an enzyme in a spot different from the active site for another molecule. This causes a conformational change in the active site for the second molecule, preventing binding. Feedback Inhibition a reaction where a product can further regulate, and further production. 4.2 Glycolysis ATP Adenosine Triphosphate Small and simple molecules The bonds of ATP are able to give quick bursts of energy= can be used to do cell work. “currency exchange” ATP in Living Things A cell (that is alive) is not able to store large amounts of free energy= the use of ATP (a rechargeable battery) The phosphate group is removed when ATP is broken down= energy is released= can be used for the cell to do work (binds the removed phosphate group and gives it to another molecule= activating it) AMP Adenosine Monophosphate (heart of ATP) Hydrolysis the release of ATP (1/2 phosphate groups) which release energy. Glycolysis (1 step) Breakdown of glucose=have energy for cell metabolism. Consists of a sixcarbon, ringshaped structure with a single glucose molecule, ends with a 3carbon sugar (Pyruvate) Glycolysis has two phases: 1 Phase adjustments are made with the energy= 6carbon sugars can divide evenly into 2, 3carbon pyruvate molecules. 2 Phase ATP and NADH (NicotinamideAdenine Dinucleotide) are made. The harvest of only 2 ATP molecules from one the glucose will happen if the cell can’t catabolize pyruvate molecules further. 4.3 Citric Acid Cycle & Oxidative Phosphorylation Acetyl CoA The result of twocarbon acetyl group + coenzyme + B5 Main function is to deliver acetyl group to the glucose catabolism. Pyruvate is converted into acetylCoA before entering the Citric Acid Cycle Citric Acid Cycle A series of enzymecatalyzed chemical reactions that saves energy in sugar molecules (carboncarbon bonds) to produce ATP Requires oxygen in later reactions to proceed Oxidative Phosphorylation electrons’ energy is saved and used to make a gradient (electrochemical) across the membrane of the mitochondria. The PE of this gradient then makes ATP. This is the process. Electron transport a passing of electrons (rapidly) which are passed from one component to the next, all the way to the end point where the electron acceptor and water is made. There are 4 complexes made of proteins (labeled I IV) Electron Transport Chain The coming together of the four complexes is called this Present in the mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes and plasma membrane of prokaryotes With each transport some energy from the electron is lost and some is stored as PE= to put Hydrogen molecules across the inner mitochondrial membrane= electrochemical gradient. ATP Synthase a place where hydrogen ions diffuse (in the inner membrane) Chemiosmosis molecules changing from ATP to ADP (flow of hydrogen ions across the membrane through ATP), makes 90% of ATP Oxidative Phosphorylation electron transport chain and the making of ATP in chemiosmosis. Electrons across the mitochondrial membrane is another source of energy NADH can’t easily enter mitochondria= electrons are picked up in NAD+ or FAD+ When FAD+ is used as the carrier fewer ATP molecules are made. NAD+ is used in the liver while FAD+ is used in the brain= ATP depends on the tissues being used Compounds in the pathways affects the yield of ATP molecules.
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