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Week 5 Notes

by: Takira Boyd

Week 5 Notes BIOL 1504.9HO

Takira Boyd

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4.1 Energy & Metabolism 4.2 Glycolysis 4.3 Citric Acid Cycle & Oxidative Phosphorylation
Principles of Biology
Mr. Mager
Class Notes
Biology, Bio Concepts/Controversy, concepts, Science, Bio, Principles of biology
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Takira Boyd on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1504.9HO at Kankakee Community College taught by Mr. Mager in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Kankakee Community College.

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Date Created: 10/03/16
Principles of Biology BIOL 1504.9HO Week 5 Notes  4.1 Energy & Metabolism  Bioenergetics­ describes the flow of energy through living things.  Metabolism­ a chemical reaction that takes place inside cells that either consume  or produce energy   Anabolic­ two processes where one requires energy and the other produces it  (build polymers)  Catabolic­ break down polymers and turn them into monomers (See Figure 4.3)  Thermodynamics­ the study of energy transfer with physical matter  Two systems: open and closed.  Open Systems­ energy exchanges with its surroundings, Ex: A stovetop system  (heat can be lost in the air)  Closed Systems­ energy cannot exchange with its surroundings  Biological organisms are considered open systems  The Law of Thermodynamics governs energy transfer   Energy is defined as the ability to do or create a change  Thermodynamics  1  Law­ Energy (the total amount) is conserved and constant in the  universe (There has always been, and will be the same amount of energy  present in the universe), Energy can be moved from one place to another  but cannot be created or destroyed.  2  Law­ Tasks are harder than they appear. In every energy transfer there  is some amount of energy lost which makes some of in unusable. Energy  will always be lost as heat in transfers/ transformations  Heat Energy­ an energy transfer where it is not work. Ex: A light bulb being  turned on (light energy is lost as heat energy)  Entropy­ a disorder or measure of randomness  High Entropy­ high disorder, low energy  Kinetic Energy­ movement of an object  Potential Energy­ energy related to the potential of the object (ability of the  object= measure of energy) Ex: A ball falling PE=KE  Potential Energy includes matter location and matter structure. Ex: A spring on  the ground, and a rubber band that is being pulled taught  Chemical Energy­ provides energy (food). Energy release happens when  molecular bonds in food molecules are broken down. Free and Activation Energy  Negative Number­ Chemical Reaction Energy changes to free energy, Free  Energy (delta G), the products of these reactions will also have less free energy  Exergonic (editing the system) Energy­ A reaction that has free energy that is  constantly negative and consequently releases free energy.  If energy is absorbed (instead of released) in a chemical reaction = the reaction  will have positive value. Endergonic Reaction  The activation energy for the reaction is typically larger than the overall  energy of the exergonic reaction.   Ex: Photosynthesis  Non­ spontaneous  Will not happen on its own= needs free energy  Activation Energy­ the energy required to start a reaction, the rate of reaction is  given by the Arrhenius equation, Ex: Enzymes. Enzymes  Helps chemical reactions happen, molecules that catalyze biochemical reactions  Substrates­ enzyme binders  Active Site­ a place in the enzyme where substrates bind (action happens)      TEMP=       REACTION RATES  Temp outside of optimal range         ENZYME CATALYZE REACTION Hot temp causes the enzymes to denature (break down bonds) = loss of the shape and function of the enzyme.  Enzymes function best in a specific pH and salt concentration  “Lock and Key” Model describes enzyme and substrate binding. (See Figure 4.8  for clarification) Inhibition (See Figure 4.9 for clarification)  Competitive Inhibition­ Substrates are similar to enzymes and blocks the  active site= substrate binding is not possible  Non­ Competitive Inhibition­ the inhibitor reduces the activity of the enzyme  and binds to the enzyme whether or not it has already bound the substrate.  Allosteric Inhibition­a regulatory molecule binds to an enzyme in a spot  different from the active site for another molecule. This causes a  conformational change in the active site for the second molecule, preventing  binding.  Feedback Inhibition­ a reaction where a product can further regulate, and further  production. 4.2 Glycolysis  ATP  Adenosine Triphosphate Small and simple molecules The bonds of ATP are able to give quick bursts of energy= can be used to  do cell work. “currency exchange”  ATP in Living Things  A cell (that is alive)  is not able to store large amounts of free energy= the  use of ATP (a rechargeable battery)  The phosphate group is removed when ATP is broken down= energy is  released= can be used for the cell to do work (binds the removed  phosphate group and gives it to another molecule= activating it)  AMP­ Adenosine Monophosphate (heart of ATP)  Hydrolysis­ the release of ATP (1/2 phosphate groups) which release  energy.  Glycolysis (1  step)  Breakdown of glucose=have energy for cell metabolism.  Consists of a six­carbon, ring­shaped structure with a single glucose  molecule, ends with a 3­carbon sugar (Pyruvate)  Glycolysis has two phases:  1  Phase­ adjustments are made with the energy= 6­carbon sugars can  divide evenly into 2, 3­carbon pyruvate molecules.  2  Phase­ ATP and NADH (Nicotinamide­Adenine Dinucleotide) are  made.  The harvest of only 2 ATP molecules from one the glucose will happen if the cell  can’t catabolize pyruvate molecules further. 4.3 Citric Acid Cycle & Oxidative Phosphorylation  Acetyl CoA  The result of two­carbon acetyl group + coenzyme + B5  Main function is to deliver acetyl group to the glucose catabolism.  Pyruvate is converted into acetyl­CoA before entering the Citric Acid  Cycle  Citric Acid Cycle  A series of enzyme­catalyzed chemical reactions that saves energy in  sugar molecules (carbon­carbon bonds) to produce ATP   Requires oxygen in later reactions to proceed  Oxidative Phosphorylation­ electrons’ energy is saved and used to make a  gradient (electrochemical) across the membrane of the mitochondria. The PE of  this gradient then makes ATP. This is the process.  Electron transport­ a passing of electrons (rapidly) which are passed from one  component to the next, all the way to the end point where the electron acceptor  and water is made.  There are 4 complexes made of proteins (labeled I­ IV) Electron Transport Chain The coming together of the four complexes is called this Present in the mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes and plasma  membrane of prokaryotes With each transport some energy from the electron is lost and some is  stored as PE= to put Hydrogen molecules across the inner mitochondrial  membrane= electrochemical gradient.  ATP Synthase­ a place where hydrogen ions diffuse (in the inner membrane)  Chemiosmosis­ molecules changing from ATP to ADP (flow of hydrogen ions  across the membrane through ATP), makes 90% of ATP   Oxidative Phosphorylation­ electron transport chain and the making of ATP in  chemiosmosis.  Electrons across the mitochondrial membrane is another source of energy  NADH can’t easily enter mitochondria= electrons are picked up in NAD+ or  FAD+  When FAD+ is used as the carrier fewer ATP molecules are made.  NAD+ is used in the liver while FAD+ is used in the brain= ATP depends on the  tissues being used  Compounds in the pathways affects the yield of ATP molecules.


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