Psy 130, Week 6 Notes
Psy 130, Week 6 Notes Psy 130
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leilanie Gonzalez on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 130 at California State University - Long Beach taught by Marianne Grosvenor in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Critical Thinking in Psychology (PSYC) at California State University - Long Beach.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Week 6 Monday, September 26, 2016 *Things to study: error management theory, seven sins of memory, and phrasing Outline st 1 premise: reduce HIV and STI with regular health checks Evidence: use legal brothels as model - Source: reference nd 2 premise: reducing violence rd 3 premise: reducing cost Counterargument 1: increase in human trafficking Rebuttals to every counterargument *don’t make this about morals and ethics unless supported by evidence *premises and counterarguments don’t have to be about the same thing * 3 premises and 3 counterarguments Reasoning (Chapter 4) - The process of thinking about something in a logical way in order to form a conclusion or judgment - Argument: a claim defended with reasons - Premises: the evidence or reasons - Conclusion: the claim Inductive Arguments - Try to show that their conclusions are likely or plausible - With inductive reasoning you can’t prove your conclusion, only disprove - Given the premise(s), the conclusion is probable - Strong or weak o Strong: the conclusion would probably be true if the premises were true (logically correct) o Cogent: true and strong - Ex: I have been to ten doctors and none have been able to cure me (premise) o Therefore no doctor can cure me (conclusion) Deductive Arguments - Try to prove their conclusions with rigorous logic - The conclusion follows from a statement that is known or believed to be true - Are either valid or invalid o Validity: the conclusion follows necessarily from the premises o Sound: true and valid Valid Deductive Arguments A valid argument can have o True premise(s) and a true conclusion o False premise(s) and a false conclusion o False premise(s) and a true conclusion An invalid argument can have o Any combination of true and false (all of the above plus false premise(s) and a false conclusion) Valid Deductive Arguments Ex: true premise(s) and a true conclusion o If you’re reading this, you are alive o You are reading this o Therefore, you are alive Ex: false premise(s) and a false conclusion o All unicorns are purple o I am a unicorn o Therefore, I am purple Ex: false premise(s) and a true conclusion o All fruits are vegetables o Spinach is a fruit o Therefore, spinach is a vegetable Invalid Deductive Arguments Ex: true premise(s) and a false conclusion o All men are mortal o Logan is mortal o Therefore, Logan is a man Ex: true premise(s) and a true conclusion o All dogs are animals o Lassie is an animal o Therefore, Lassie is a dog Ex: false premise(s) and a false conclusion o All dogs are cats o All cats are whales o All dogs are whales Ex: false premise(s) and a true conclusion o All pears are vegetables o All fruits are vegetables o Therefore, all pears are fruits Indicator words - Deductive o Certainly o Definitely o Absolutely o This entails that - Inductive o Probably o Likely o Chances are that o It is reasonable to assume Wednesday, September 28, 2016 No class, professor was sick