Chapter 6 Lecture notes
Chapter 6 Lecture notes 2010
Popular in Introduction to Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nykira sutton on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2010 at Clemson University taught by Jo Anne Jorgensen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Chapter 6 pt 1 Learning ● Behaviorism: study of observable behavior ● Learning: any relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge from experience ○ behavioralist deﬁnition Conditioning ● Conditioning: learning associations between environmental stimuli and organisms responses ○ Classical conditioning: reﬂexive response ◆ Ex. turning on drill in room full of people who have had ﬁllings ○ Operant conditioning: voluntary responses ◆ Ex. work and get a paycheck for it ◆ or you study and you get a grade for it Classical conditioning ● classical conditioning: learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus ● Ex. Bring dog food to dog and the dog starts salivating ○ dog did not have to be taught this = unconditioned stimulus ○ Unconditioned stimulus produces an unconditioned response ○ Pavlov bell ◆ Bell starts out as a neutral stimulus ◆ ring bell when food is brought out which makes dog salivate = Conditioned response ○ “In which stimulus acquires” : the bell ○ “evoke a response” : the dog salivating ○ “originally evoked by another” “: food ● Principles of Classical Conditioning: ○ Acquisition: initial stage of learning something ◆ Ex. dog learned to salivate to bell because it was paired to the food ◆ Stimulus contiguity: stimuli occur together in space or time ◆ Best: conditioned stimulus just before the other ◆ ring bell ﬁrst THEN bring the food ○ Extinction: gradual weakening and disappearance of conditioned response tendency ◆ Ex. ring the bell and the dog does not salivate ◆ Best: present conditioned stimulus alone ◆ Ex. ring the bell and do not bring the food ◆ unpair food from bell What is on test p.202 Chapter 6 pt 2 Recap from last class ● Learning ● Conditioning ○ Classical conditioning ○ Operant conditioning ● Classical conditioning ○ Principles of classical conditioning ◆ Acquisition ◆ Extinction ———————————————————————————————————— —— Classical Conditioning ● Principles of Classical conditioning ○ Extinction ◆ Renewal effect: if a response is extinguished in a different environment than the original it will reappear if the organism is returned to the original environment ◆ original environment: where the response was acquired ◆ use in humans: drug and alcohol use ◆ go to rehab and then go back into original drug inﬂuenced environment then the person may relapse ◆ Extinguished is different from being unlearned ◆ Suppress response ◆ connection to spontaneous recovery ○ Spontaneous recovery: reappearance of extinguished response after a period of non exposure to the condition stimulus ○ Stimulus generalization: after learning a speciﬁc stimulus response, the organism responds to the new stimulus in the same way as the original ◆ have to be similar ○ Stimulus discrimination: after learning a speciﬁc stimulus response the organism does not respond to the new stimulus in the same way as the original ○ Higher order conditioning: condition stimulus functions as the unconditioned stimulus when paired with new conditioned stimulus ◆ works in humans ◆ Ex. advertisers Operant Conditioning ● operant conditioning: response are controlled by consequences ○ Reward: an event following a response that tends to increase behavior ◆ increase “likelihood” of increase in behavior ○ Punishment: an event following a response that tends to decrease behavior ○ Neutral: neither increases or decreases behavior Positive/Negative Reward and Punishment ● Positive: adding something to situation ● Negative: withdraw something from situation ● Positive reward: increase probability of behavior ○ adding something to situation ○ Ex. Candy ● Negative reward: increase probability of behavior ○ Ex. Study hard and get chores taken away ◆ Bribe ◆ Ex. a kid yells in the grocery store so the mom gives him candy to make him stop. This is the kid negatively rewarding the mom by making it quiet ● Positive punishment: decrease probability behavior ○ Ex. Spanking ● Negative punishment: decrease probability of behavior ○ Ex. Time out Important Conditions ● The action that immediately follows is the reinforcer ○ Ex. woman yells at man for calling a hour late which is a punishment and may make him not call at all to avoid being yelled at ● The sooner the consequence follows a response, the greater its effect ○ Ex. promising a child to go to a football game the present night if they eat their vegetables ● Punishment can be rewarded because of the attention ○ Ex. someone pranking a building and the authorities taking them down without bringing attention to the incident ◆ taking the wind out of the sails ● Different rewards and punishments work for different people ○ Ex. timeout works with certain children but it may not work with others What could be on the test pg 187-188 Chapter 6 pt 3 Recap from last class ● Classical conditioning ○ Extinction ○ Spontaneous recovery ○ Stimulus generalizaiton ○ high order conditioning ● Operant conditioning ○ reward ○ punishment ○ neutral ● Positive/Negative Reward and Punishment ○ positive reward ○ negative reward ○ positive punishment ○ negative punishment ● Important conditions ———————————————————————————————————— ——————————————————————— Important conditions ● logical consequences ○ Ex. child scribbles on wall ◆ some parents give time out but has nothing to do w/ scribbling on the wall ◆ good consequence: family was going to the beach BUT because they have to clean the wall the family won’t be able to go to the beach Premack principle ● Premack principle: one activity can act as a reinforcer to another ● Example ○ Theatre (fav subject) ◆ study ﬁrst ○ Math (lease fav subject) ◆ study next ◆ stimulus following response is reinforcer ◆ punish self by studying math ○ punish self for studying theater ○ study math before studying theatre Primary and Secondary Rewards and Punishers ● Primary rewards: satisfy biological needs ○ Ex. food, water, temperature etc ● Secondary rewards: learned rewards ○ associated with the primary ○ Ex. money ● Primary punisher: inherently unpleasant ○ Ex. hunger, something painful ● Secondary Punisher: learned ○ Ex. speeding ticket ● All things equal: reward works better than punishment ○ mothers would say: punishment works better Bias ● Sports illustrated curse: regression to the mean ○ if you are at the top then the only place to go is down ◆ and vice versa. at the bottom then only place to go is up ◆ works with reward and punishment ○ when a person gets featured on sports illustrated their career goes downhill Ways to punish Right way ● Hot stove rule: an immediate punishment ○ consistent ◆ everytime to every person ○ impersonal ○ moderate (ﬁt the crime) ○ Restrictions: ◆ should be non-physical ◆ punish privately ◆ explain why the punishment is happening ◆ don’t give too long of an explanation or the punishment may not be immediate ◆ may turn into a back and forth making it a negotiation Principles of operant conditioning ● Acquisition: reinforcement affects behavior ● Extinction: weakening and disappearance of response ○ consequence no longer follows the behavior ○ Ex. quit giving reward then behavior goes down ◆ quit punishment then behavior goes up ○ better to ignore behavior ◆ Ex. when child throws temper tantrum, ignore behavior ● Stimulus generalization: similar to the deﬁnition for classical conditioning ● Stimulus discrimination: similar to classical conditioning What is going to be on test pg 205-209
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