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HIS 1043 - Chapter 4 Lecture Notes

by: Emily Gonzalez

HIS 1043 - Chapter 4 Lecture Notes HIS 1043

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Emily Gonzalez

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Week 5 Lecture
US History Pre-Columbus to Civil War
David Hansen
Class Notes
us, history, The Great Awakening, The Enlightenment, America
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Gonzalez on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 1043 at University of Texas at San Antonio taught by David Hansen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see US History Pre-Columbus to Civil War in History at University of Texas at San Antonio.

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Date Created: 10/03/16
HIS 1043 - Chapter 4 Lecture Outline Roughly late 1600s - mid 1700s English are maturing - strong economies and social networks. Enlightenment & Awakening At first glance, it will seem like they are opposite from each other (in some ways true); happening both in Europe and British colonies; appeal to different groups of people; end result is similar; reshapes the way people think - Basic American Mindset Colonial Counterculture The Enlightenment - Starts in Europe spreads to the colonies; intellectual movement that appeals to elites and educated. New way of thinking about world and mankind's role in this world.  A New Age of Reason (also referred to as Rationalism - people that adopt to this are rationalists or enlightenment thinkers) o Rules based view of the world; contrasts with original views of religion and folklore. o Secular emphasis on learning and knowledge. o Breaks churches monopoly on knowledge; up to now church had been the repository on western knowledge. o Literacy was low before Gutenberg invented the Printing Press.  Clergy used to own knowledge.  Knowledge is no longer owned by the Church; it is not solely for the purpose of salvation.  Use it to solve everyday problems.  Ordinary/middle class people are rationalists now.  Rejection of authority and rejects the long standing idea that humans are helpless and that there's nothing to do to change our position.  Humans do have the power to understand the mysterious world.  ^^^ Radical Idea o Based on Logic, Natural Law  Reason: Human intellectual power to think, analyze.  Rationalists use this intellectual power to gather evidence, data, and form conclusions on that data rather than on faith or traditional authority.  Acquire knowledge and test it; accept only that which can be proven by fact and logical reasoning.  Calls traditional sources of authority (nobility, clergy, monarchy, etc.) into question.  "Difference in World Views" Example: Hansen is walking down the street and gets struck by lightning.  Traditional POV: That's God's punishment for his sins; divinely activated.  Rationalists POV: Yeah, he might be evil but it wasn't punishment it was a natural phenomenon. He was in the wrong place at the wrong time, has nothing to do with retribution.  Enlightenment thinkers believe there is a set of natural laws that govern everything. Natural law is a consistent occurrence or phenomenon if certain conditions are present.  Universe is orderly, precise, and predictable; therefore, knowable.  We can improve the human condition, we don’t have to keep things the way they are.  Science - New ideas about the operation of the natural world. Enlightenment is a great leap forward to the scientific revolution. Systematic study of the physical world. Science is simply a method of gathering and analyzing info; also collects data, forms an initial hypothesis, and thoroughly tests experiments with that data; accepting only the conclusion that meets the test of logic and repeatability. o Isaac Newton  What we're taught: Discovered gravity by an apple falling on his head.  He didn’t discover it, he explained it in physical terms.  His book Principia Matematica lays out laws of motion and gravity.  Law #1 - An object in motion tends to stay in motion unless acted upon by an outside force.  Law #2 - An object at rest tends to stay at rest unless acted upon by an outside force.  Law #3 - For every action there's an equal but opposite reaction. All objects have mass; the larger the object is, the more gravity it has.  Basis of modern world is founded on some of the things he figured out.  His book causes outrage among the church - his ideas suggest the world is mechanical, lessens the need for a divine God.  Criticized of being an atheist and heretic; he was actually a deeply religious man who thought his ideas were proving the existence of God. o Benjamin Franklin  Best American example of the Enlightenment  Working in the area of applied science.  Doesn't discount knowledge but has the typical American attitude and asks "wouldn't it be great if we could make some money off it?"  Takes a lot of the ideas scientists come up with and uses them to solve practical problems; wanted to know why things worked.  Lightening Rod  What we're taught: Flew a kite with a key during a thunderstorm that gets struck by lightning.  Kite was tied to a post, there was a metal key tied to the string and Franklin was far away.  Attaches lightening rod to house (so house doesn't burn down when lightning strikes) and electrical charge travels down wire and house is ok.  He reasoned that we can do something to alter our fate - we aren't at the mercy of the world.  Philosophy - new ideas about the relationship between man and the world. Beliefs and attitudes that serve as guiding principles for human thought and behavior; direct how we think and believe. o These philosophers are using the concept of reason to understand human's role in the universe.  Voltaire - French  Most famous idea involves clock - asks "what does the existence of a clock prove?": it proves the existence of a clock maker! It isn't a natural object, someone made it. The guy who made the clock created it to work on its own; doesn't require constant intervention.  The existence of the universe proves the existence of a creator.  Like a clock, it doesn’t need constant micromanagement.  Therefore, we can't blame anyone but humans for human problems.  Enormous amount of criticism received for this idea.  Leads to a religious doctrine known as deism (a single creator/god that doesn't directly intervene with human affairs).  Becomes a popular idea to the elite and educated; still popular in some circles today.  John Locke - English  Rejects the concept of original sin (Adam & Eve's disobedience to god leading all humanity born to sin).  This is a doctrine that many religions have a variation of.  "Only hope to redeem us is a church."  Locke believes humans are born as a blank slate; neither inherently good or evil. Our environment and surroundings shape us. Society determines it for us - if we can perfect society, we can perfect humanity.  Causes trouble with the church because he's directly contradicting teachings and the need for a church.  Politics - the power to make decisions; study of power relationships. o John Locke  Starts to question the basis of political authority and then the role of government.  Up until now power is held by those who could seize it and hold onto it.  Then dynastic systems (nobility, monarchy) take over - Locke says "who gave you the power?"  Divine Right of Kings - widely accepted consensus  "I am the king because God made me the King; question my authority - question God's authority."  Locke says "one of the natural laws/rights given by your creator the right of life, liberty, and property and that no one can take away your natural right without your consent."  BUT we have to live in groups for survival; we can't exist as individuals who freely exercise all their natural rights.  We have to limit some of our rights to enjoy the rest of them.  Social Compact or Contract  We get together and agree to live by a certain set of rules and agree to live by those rules in which we give up certain freedoms so others will be protected.  Ex: Mayflower Compact  Social Compact is the sole source of political authority! Based on the consent of the governed!!!  We are the sole source of authority and the government acts to fulfill our needs; if they don’t protect our rights, we are free to change that government.  Leads to Political Philosophy of st Republicanism. The 1 Great Awakening - another cultural movement; has roots of European culture. Appeals to different group of people - the non-elites. Movement based on faith that focuses on the emotional experience of religion. First truly national event. More people experience this firsthand. Point of common reference. Everyone is affected whether they embrace it or not.  Beginnings - starts in New Jersey, Pennsylvania (middle colonies) then to England and then moves to southern colonies. o Decline of Religious Zeal Early 1700s (1730s/40s)  Pilgrims came to America for religious freedom but as soon as they got here they denied it for everyone else; most came for economic reasons; established societies based on Calvinism. By this time, the grandkids/great grandkids have never experienced persecution as original settlers did.  Puritans transform to Yankees.  Yankee in England is a compliment - means you are smart, clever, thrifty.  3rd and 4th generation are interested in the secular world - broad decline of religious enthusiasm.  Society in jeopardy because we abandoned God's role for us. o Johnathan Edwards - Congregationalist minister in Massachusetts.  Puritans change their name to Congregationalists.  Despite colonial laws (mandatory church attendance) and halfway covenant there is a decline in Church attendance - makes him upset because its his job to save their mortal souls.  1735 - Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God  Most famous sermon in history - speaks in a soft voice.  Explains that everyone is going to hell, they have broken his covenant; unless they straighten out their ways they'll go to hell.  People hear this and get down on their knees begging God for forgiveness; they stay in the church in prayer until Monday afternoon.  Church on Sundays from then on were full - people even gathered outside the church listening.  Other ministers starts preach the same way - "Hellfire and Damnation Sermons and Preaching"  After a while this fades out; some still embrace it and some believe its irrational, but word still spreads.  Spreading the Word - moves south. Word is filtering down about this religious movement and people start wondering what is going to happen to them. o George Whitefield - Anglican priest that gets involved in this movement. In his late teens and early 20s was a rowdy partier, drunk,  womanizer; then had a religious experience and devotes his life to the seminary.  When he was in the seminary, he realized that his instructors aren't as enthusiastic as he is; starts saying the Anglican clergy is corrupt.  Becomes America's first itinerant/travelling preacher.  Would come into town give out fliers inviting people to come to his preachings (with the approval of town minister, if they had one, he'd show up).  He was tall, muscular, and handsome with a booming voice. Understood the value of getting people excited and involved.  People would walk away excited; he's getting people to embrace religion in an emotional way.  Priesthood of Believers: Anyone can preach the gospel if they were truly in touch with their spirituality or read and interpret this word; all that matters is how much you believe.  Democratizes religion; puts the power of salvation into your own hands.  This gives hope to people who haven't been baptized, but not everyone agrees with this.  Split within every denomination happens.  Old Lights vs. New Lights - GW says "Let the new light in and be born again"   Old Lights - more traditional  Believe in "Hellfire & Damnation" style of preaching. If you don’t understand the doctrine and ideology or what it is you believe then it isn't a real experience.  Don't accept George Whitefield's idea.  Starting to decline in membership while New Lights is growing.  New Lights  Accept GW's and JE's idea.  Humans have the power to choose and doesn't require anything but simple faith.  Evangelical style of preaching. o Methodists & Baptists - fastest growing among the New Lights; emerge out of Anglican tradition  Embrace this new light idea (the more deeply felt faith, the more real it is); appeals more to ordinary people.  Old lights appeals to more old and established money.  M & B attract thousands of new members because of broad appeal among middle and lower classes.  Especially down in the south where many aren't baptized; both preach to and include black slaves.  Evangelicalism - common tradition of all new lights is America's unique contribution to world religion aka evangelicalism. o Mostly characteristic of the New Lights; it will continue to be a major force in American religion and society through today. o Becomes identified with American Protestantism and later all American Christianity. o 4 Characteristics:  Biblical Inherency - the bible is never wrong there are no mistakes in it, it is the divine word of God.  Sola Scriptura - "only the scriptures" - don't accept anything as truth if it isn't specifically stated in the bible.  Ex: Don’t believe in the 7 deadly sins or heavenly virtues because it isn't in the bible.  Salvation is an individual experience NOT an institutional experience.  Don't need a church hierarchy to guide you to salvation - you find your salvation within the scripture itself.  Active and enthusiastic in going out and preaching the gospel to those who haven't heard it in hopes to convert them or those who have to renew their faith.  Democratizes religion - gives religious authority to the common man. Challenging Authority - the Enlightenment and Great Awakening are pretty much happening at the same time and they are completely opposite on the surface, but that's not really true. They're answering different questions. Even during the GA, JE, GW, and V believed there was no inherent opposition between science and religion. They come together to challenge traditional authority. They create some characteristics that common throughout society:  Pluralism (Religious Toleration) o Religious descent is ok; it's okay to disagree with each other.  Got this idea from the GA. o Religious descent is not really political descent. o Increases religious diversity in the US. o Broad acceptance that other doctrines are equally legit means we wont have episodes of sectarian violence.  Sectarian Violence - holy wars; we aren't going to have wars breaking out between different religions. All of the American religious traditions accept each other. o Able to use science and rationalism as guiding principles for government and religion for our personal lives.  The two work together rather than being in opposition to each other.  Disestablishment o Actual separation between church and state. o Most of the colonies through the 1700s had an established church - Anglicans in Virginia, Carolinas in Georgia, Catholics in Maryland (almost), Congregationalists in New England. o Everyone was considered a member and belonged but since split of denominations there comes a problem:  "Why am I paying taxes to a church whose beliefs and doctrines I reject?" o We can't support all of the churches with tax money so we end up supporting none of them. o Result: Greater freedom of worship.  This and pluralism gives us our ideas for religious liberty.  Egalitarianism o A rough social equality. o A breakdown of these traditional, rigid systems of class hierarchy.  A breakdown of deference (to defer, to submit to someone else's authority). o People are rejecting the idea of people who have higher social class having more authority. o Very important political legacy. o Spiritual equality leads to social & political equality.


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