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MKG 425

by: Hali Nepsha

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These notes cover chapters 1 - 4 and the beginning of chapters 7 and 8 from.
Marketing Research
Class Notes
Marketing, research, Chapter, one, two, three, four, seven, eight, MKG, 425
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hali Nepsha on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MKG 425 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Ceren EKEBAS-TUREDI in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Marketing Research in Marketing at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
Marketing 425 Notes Thu Aug 25,2016 Ch. 1 Introduction to Mkt Research What is marketing?  Convincing why a product is better than another  How to get people to look at a product  Targeting positioning and segmentation  Starts w/finding the needs (finding problems, creating needs(i.e body order) (remember difference of needs and wants..(i.e. smart phone) needs can become wants visa versa),  Identification, selection & develpm. Product  Determination of all 4P’s (produc. ,Place, promotion, positioning)  Convincn’ customers to buy The twofold goal mkting are:  To attract new customers by promisin’ superior value &  to keep & grow current customers by delivering satisfaction (i.e Wal-Mart(expect low prices), target(expect customer service, good priced)) What is Marketing Strategy?:  A Marketing Strategy consists of selecting a segment of the market as the company’s target market and designing the proper “mix” of the product/service, price, promotion, and distribution system to meet the wants and needs of the consumers within the target market.  Think habits  Think cultural behaviors Tue Aug 30 Ch. 1 continued ….  Cannibalizing (stealing mkt shares from another product) Implement mkting concept, or devel. “rt” strat. • Managers must make decisions. • To make the “right” decisions, the following kind of information is needed: – objective – accurate – timely Sell the sizzle, not the steak! Marketing research:  Why do consumers buy certain products? What do comp. do to convince. Consum. To buy What is Marketing Research? (Burns/Bush Definition)  Marketing research is the process of designing, gathering, analyzing, and reporting information that may be used to solve a specific marketing problem. Hearing the existing or future customer!!!! Marketing or marketing research? • Marketing research: a process used by businesses to collect, analyze, and interpret information used to make sound business decisions and successfully manage the business • Market research: a process used to define the size, location, and/or makeup of the market for a product or service What is the purpose of mktn’ research?:  To link the consumer to the marketer by providing information that can be used in making marketing decisions (i.e. Coca Cola FAILURE!)  Social desirable bias Thus Sep 1 Ch 3 Marketing research process and defining the problem and research objectives Review: Segmenation, targeting, positioning and product life cycle (PLC) PLC: shows products life and death Buzz products = quick life Segmentation • Segmentation: Creating separate marketing mixes for groups in the market that differ in meaningful ways. – Define the customer segment who will buy that product or service? Define the income profile Evaluate the brand or the product or service; what do you think about their segmentation strategy, is it successful? The market segmentation Process • Segmenting the Consumer Market • Four Categories • behavioristic • geographic • demographic (income, gender, edu…ect..) • psychographic (attitudes, personality, interest..ect.. ) Target marketing • Customer segments that your marketing mix ( 4 ps) • Not whole target market will be attracted • Not every customer who buys are in target market • Evaluating each market segment’s attractiveness and selecting one or more segments to enter. Product Positioning • Devel. Positioning for targ. Mkget. • Way consumers idtenify procduct important on attributes ( the place the product occupies in consumer’s mind) • Segmentation- Targeting- Positioning Ch3 continued…. Tue. Sep. 6 th  Social responsibility …(i.e. TOMS)  & Cause related mktg. (donating certain amount of something… product/$) (i.e. TOMS) (The logic of CRM: i.e. TOMS, to flip soc. Respo. On the consumer, “making a statement”, encourages purchases rather than donations alone)(when comp. do good it increase stocks, shareholders not only just sales)(corp. trying to do good)  Emotional attachment (not buying just to buy but for a specific purpose bc we care)(unconscious process) Brand personality: brand image creates brand personality. What you think when you see a brand (association) when brands try to position themselves in your brain they become like a person… you personalize brands (brand positioning comes first then brand image then brand personality) it is built over time by sending consumers specific msg • The Marketing Research Process: Caveats to a Step-by-Step Process The “Step-by-Step Process” • Not always presented as an 11-step process • Not all studies use all 11 steps • Few studies follow the steps in order Step 1: Establish the Need for Marketing Research • Is there a real need for marketing research? • Is there a real need for marketing research? • Marketing research is not always needed • When is marketing research NOT needed? • The information is already available. • Decisions must be made now. • We can’t afford research. • Costs outweigh the value of marketing research. Step 2: Define the Problem Most important step (incorrectly defined waste effort) • Problems may be either specific or general.( role of symptoms in prob. Recognition) Step 3: Establish Objectives • Research objectives,(when achieved) provide necessary info to solve problems • State what research must do Thu. Sep. 8 ch 3 continued.. Step 4: Determine Research Design • Exploratory Research: collecting information in an unstructured and informal manner. Such as secondary data analysis and observing an event. • Descriptive research: research that describes the phenomena of interest. Causal studies: attempt to uncover what factor or factors cause some event Step 5: Identify Information Types and Sources • Primary information: information collected specifically for the problem at hand • Secondary information: information already collected Step 6: Determine Methods of Accessing Data • Secondary data is relatively easy to access; primary data is more complex. • Three main choices for primary data: • Have a person ask questions • Use computer-assisted or direct questioning • Allow respondents to answer questions themselves without computer assistance Step 7: Design Data Collection Forms • Questionnaire must be worded objectively, clearly, and without bias in order to communicate with respondents. Step 8: Determine Sample Plan and Size • Sample plan refers to the process used to select units from the population to be included in the sample. Gives you representativeness! • Sample size refers to determining how many elements of the population should be included in the sample. Gives you accuracy! Step 9: Collect Data • Data collection is very important because, regardless of the data analysis methods used, data analysis cannot fix bad data. • Non-sampling errors may occur during data collection. • Data collection errors may be attributed to field workers or respondents. • Researchers must know the sources of these errors and the controls to minimize them. Step 10: Analyze Data • Data analysis involves entering data into computer files, inspecting data for errors, and running tabulations and various statistical tests. • Data cleaning is a process by which raw data are checked to verify that the data have been correctly inputted from the data collection form to the computer software program. Step 11: Prepare and Present the Final Research Report • The last step is one of the most important phases of marketing research. • Its importance cannot be overstated because it is the report, or its presentation, that properly communicates the results to the client. The Research Objective • Research objectives are specific and tell the researcher exactly what information must be collected to solve the problem by facilitating selection of an alternative. • Specify from whom information is to be gathered • Specify what information is needed • Specify the unit of measurement used to gather information • Word questions used to gather information using the respondents’ frame of reference Hypotheses and Constructs • Hypotheses are statements that are taken as true for the purposes of argument or investigation. • A construct is an abstract idea or concept composed of a set of attitudes or behaviors that are thought to be related. • What is the unit of measurement? • What is the proper frame of reference? The Importance of Properly Defining the Problem • When you define a problem incorrectly, there is nothing you can do in the research process to overcome this error. • This makes defining the problem and research objectives the most important step in the marketing research process. The Market Research Proposal Elements include: • Statement of the problem • The research objectives • The research method • Statement of deliverables • Costs • Timetable Tue Sep 20 Ch 4 (LOGIC OF THIS CLASS) IMPORTANT! Research Design Research design Is a set of advance decisions that make up the master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing the needed information. Why is Research Design Important? • Good research design is the “first rule of good research”. Knowledge of the needed research design allows advance planning so that the project may be conducted in less time and typically at a cost savings due to efficiencies gained in preplanning Objectives of Research Design • To gain background information and to develop hypotheses • To measure the state of a variable of interest • To test hypotheses that specify the relationships between two or more variables Research Design: A Caution • In many cases research is an iterative process. • By conducting one research project, we learn that we may need additional research, which may result in using multiple research designs. Categories of Research (not research design) • Quantitative research: research involving the use of structured questions in which response options have been predetermined and a large number of respondents involved • Qualitative research: research involving collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data by observing what people do and say; it can be quantified Three Types of Research Design • Exploratory • Descriptive • Causal Exploratory Research • It is usually conducted when the researcher does not know much about the problems. • Exploratory research is usually conducted at the outset of research projects. Uses of Exploratory Research • Gain background information • Define terms • Clarify problems and hypothesis • Establish research priorities Exploratory Research Methods • Secondary Data Analysis: the process of searching for interpreting existing information relevant to the research topic • Experience Surveys: refers to gathering information from those knowledgeable on the issues relevant to the research problem • Case Analysis: a review of available information about a former situation(s) that has some similarities to the current research problem • Focus Groups: small groups brought together and guided by a moderator through an unstructured, spontaneous discussion for the purpose of gaining information relevant to the research problem Descriptive Research • Descriptive research is undertaken to describe answers to questions of who, what, where, when, and how. Thur sep 22 ch 4 continued… When do you use quantitative…when you have a very structured research, you know your questions. When do you use qualitative…when you don’t have structure…you don’t know your question..(Focus groups used) (i.e. Exploratory research) i.e. interviews 2 types research quan & qual (might not be related to research design (chose after research type is chose)(after can go with exp., des. Or causc.)) Descriptive research Descriptive Research Classifications • Cross-sectional studies • Longitudinal studies Descriptive Research Studies Cross-sectional studies measure units from a sample of the population at only one point in time (or “snapshot”). Cross-sectional A cross-sectional study is an observational one. Researchers record information about their subjects without manipulating the study environment • Cons: Cross-sectional studies may not provide definite information about cause- and-effect relationships. Classification of Descriptive Research Studies • Longitudinal studies repeatedly measure the same sample units of a population over time. Tue Sept 27 ch 4 continued… • Causal Research (understanding a phenomenon (if x, then y)) • Conducted through the use of experiments (random assign. Groups) • Can determine cause and effect relationships Experiments • An experiment is defined as manipulating an independent variable to see how it affects a dependent variable, while also controlling the effects of additional extraneous variables. Validity of experiments: • Observation changed in the dep. Variable due to ind. Variable • Apply to real world (outside experiment setting) Two forms of validity are used • Internal validity is concerned with the extent to which the change in the dependent variable is actually due to the change in the independent variable. • External validity refers to the extent that the relationship observed between the independent and dependent variables during the experiment is generalizable to the “real world.” Ch 7&8 Part 1 Surveys • A survey involves interviews with a large number of respondents using a predesigned questionnaire. • Questionnaire – A document containing questions and other types of items designed to solicit information appropriate for analysis. Advantages of Using Survey Methods • Standardization • Ease of administration • Ability to tap the “unseen” • Suitability to tabulation and statistical analysis • Sensitivity to subgroup differences


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