New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Fungi and Intro to Animals

by: Miles Grigorian

Fungi and Intro to Animals BY 124

Marketplace > University of Alabama at Birmingham > Biology > BY 124 > Fungi and Intro to Animals
Miles Grigorian
GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

No more plants, so now we are starting to go into Kingdom Animalia and Fungi.
Intro To Biology 124
Dr. Cusic
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Intro To Biology 124

Popular in Biology

This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miles Grigorian on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BY 124 at University of Alabama at Birmingham taught by Dr. Cusic in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Intro To Biology 124 in Biology at University of Alabama at Birmingham.

Similar to BY 124 at UAB


Reviews for Fungi and Intro to Animals


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/03/16
Bio Notes Week 4 Chapter 29: Fungi  Eukaryotic, closer to animals than plants o Different from animals in 3 ways:  Nutritional mode  Absorptive rather than ingested  Break down organic substance outside of the organisms and then sucks it up again  Two ways fungi get their food: o Saprophytic  Live on dead stuff  Important for decomposing and returning carbon and nitrogen into the environment o Parasitic  Live on living things  50 different species of fungi that cause problems in humans  Athlete’s foot  Difficult to get rid of because they are eukaryotic cells as well as the rest of your body, so can’t target them as well as you could with a bacterial infection  Mutualistic Relationship with some plants o Mycorrhizae  Mutualistic Relationship with some animals o Leaf cutter ant o Go out into the tree and cut pieces of leaves, then take the leaves back to the nest where to put a fungus on the leaves to decompose  Ants clean the leaves so the leaves can only be treated by a specific fungus  Structural Organization  Hyphae o Continuous cell-like structures with multiple nuclei that may be separated  Haploid nuclei  Two nuclei that are the same are known as a Dikaryon  Coenocytic o Have multiple nuclei in same cell o Basic building block o Get together to make a mycelium  Make the largest living organism on the planet o Eat a mushroom  Eating the reproductive structure, but the mycelium is still there  Some are going to be rhizoids  Haustorium o Secretes exoenzymes in organism to breaks down living cells around it  Cell walls made of chitin  Reproduction  Life Cycle o Asexual  Mycelium has spore producing structures that produce spores and are released o Sexual  Another mycelium fuses to another’s cytoplasm, or Plasmogamy, and makes a heterokaryotic stage  Karyogamy occurs, in which nuclei fuse together to make the only diploid stage  Goes through meiosis to make haploid spores which are released to from new haploid fungi o Yeast reproduce by budding since they are single-celled o Two different types of Fungi  Chytrids  Chytridiomycota  Most primitive  Mostly aquatic  Different from other fungi because they have flagella and flagellated zoo spores o Fungi because they have:  Chitin  Absorptive  Coenocytic Hyphae  Zygomycetes  The Zygote/Conjugation Function  Black Bread Mold o Black stuff on the mold is Rhizopus o Fungus grows because there are preservatives on the bread  Life cycle o Asexual  Spores grow down into mycelium and grow into sporangium  Undergoes mitosis to produce spores o Sexual  Mating types come together and undergo Plasmogamy (fusion of cytoplasm) and Karyogamy (fusion of nuclei)  Zygosporangium forms from the karyogamy  Forms a diploid nucleus  Diploid stage is only unicellular  Sporangium grows from diploid nuclei  Uses a Pilobus to shoot spores  Can go up to 2m so that spores will land on grass and animals will eat the grass (won’t eat the fungus)  Glomeromycetes  Ascomycota (ascomycetes)  Largest division of fungi  Sac fungi o Unicellular yeast o Powdery mildew  Life Cycle o Asexual  Uses a conidia (dust) o Sexual  Mating types  Plasmogamy and karyogamy form  An Ascus forms during Plasmogamy  4 haploid nuclei undergo mitosis in the ascus to form 8 ascospores  Lots cause plant disease, but some you can eat o Morel  Edible  Expensive o Tuber melanosporum  Not chocolate  Truffle oil  Almost as expensive as gold  Grew underground and needed to release spores  Used pigs to help the spores come out, females were more attracted  Androstenol o Kind of like Androgen (male hormone) o Fungi released which attracted more female pigs than male pigs o Plant Diseases  Corn Smut  Tar on Maple Leaves  Ergots on rye  One of the most toxic substance known to humans  Causes hallucinations and convulsions o Natural Derivative of LSD  Reason for witches during the Salem Witch Trials  Lichen o Symbiotic relationship between some fungi and some plant or Protist o Foliose  Leaf like lichen o Crustose o Sensitive to environmental conditions  Many are dying from pollution o Reproduction  Takes a piece of algae and little piece of fungi and releases it as a Soredia  Has ascocarps  Basidiomycota  Mushrooms  Shelf fungus o Bad news if growing off of side of tree o Can break down cellulose  Puffballs o If you hit a ripe one, a cloud of “dust” will blow up in the air o Don’t want in your eye  Maiden Veil Fungus o If you take the veil off of it, they look obscene  Life Cycle o Don’t usually do asexual o Sexual  Mating types  Underneath Mushroom  Region where karyogamy and Plasmogamy occur  Undergoes mitosis to form 4 basidiospores to form diploid nuclei  Form haploid spores by undergoing meiosis and will make mycelia  Some are very toxic o Shuts down transportation in liver o No toxic cure  Southeast USA is the Mecca of Mushrooms  Psilocybin o AKA “Shrooms” o Hallucinating effects  Deuteromycota  “Imperfect Fungus”  We don’t know anything about them o Researchers place newly found species in here until they can identify the correct phylum  Usually ends up being Ascomycota  Disease  Yeast  Athlete’s foot  Histoplasmosis  Ethylene (yes, the one in plants) o Causes the fungal spores to germinate also Chapter 32: Intro to Animals  Kingdom Animalia o 35 different phyla o Eukaryotic  No cell walls o Heterotrophic  Have to have some way to get the food, and have a way to digest it  Also have to get rid of waste  Urine or fecal material o More distinct multicellular species with animals o Need oxygen  Don’t need CO2  How to get oxygen and release CO2 o Store glucose as glycogen o Communication o Fertilization  Egg and zygote  Cleavage  Means becoming multicellular  Gastrulation  Forms the primary germ layers  Think of a balloon and push your hand into it o Cells on inside and outside with a hollow middle, or Blastopore  Develops into either an anus or a mouth depending on what animal you are o Animals have an ectoderm and an endoderm  Some have mesoderms o Hoax Genes  Important in embryonic development  Determine what animals look like  4 legs or 2 arms and 2 legs  Tentacles o Evolution  Animals shared a common ancestor with choanoflagellates  Single cell flagellate cells that grow on a stalk  First animal fossils about 550mya  Cambrian Explosion  Lots of creatures appeared on Earth  Half of all living species had a presence during this time  What happened to cause the great diversity of life? o Some are predators  Predator and prey drives evolution  Predator gets better, then the prey gets better, and the cycle continues o Hoax Genes  Get lots of diversity o Increase in Oxygen during this time period  Creatures had better cellular respiration  The first split  Anything that split from the flagellates become Metazoa o Then split to the Eumetazoa (animal like) and Parazoa (Sponges)  Radial/Bilateral Split  Radial o Like a pie o Like a cup o Sessile o First two group are called Diploblastic and Triploblastic  Endodermis and Ectodermic  Endodermis, ectodermis, and mesodermis  Bilateral o Left and right side o Have a head usually o Can be more mobile o Also has sense organs to determine its environment  Acoelomate o No body cavity  Coelomate o Body cavity o Surrounded by mesoderm  Pseudocoelomate o Have a space but is not a true body cavity  Not surrounded by red mesoderm  Are they Protostomes or Deuterostomes?  Protostome (Blastopore becomes mouth) o Mouth first o worms  Deuterostome (Blastopore becomes anus) o Mouth second o Humans  Cleavage  8 cell stage in development o Spiral and Determinate  Fate of blastopores is determined early  If separated, then only have 1 organism o Radial and indeterminate  Fate of blastopores undetermined  If separate, can become multiple organisms  Can get identical twins  Body cavities  Gives space for organs to function  If you bend over, your organs aren’t protruding for your body  Segmented Creatures  Humans are segmented  Vertebrae good visualization of segmentation o Difference between morphological and molecular aspect  Sponges are different  Agreed by all  Also agreed on radial symmetry, and rest are bilateral  Division of Protostomes into 2 groups  Ecydoszoa o Nematoda  Spilt exoskeleton to shed outer layer that allows them to grow o Arthropoda  Lophotrochozoa o Use a lophotrch to feed Chapter 33 – Invertebrates  Phylum Porifera o “to bear pores” o Sponges o 5,500 species that live underwater in both fresh and salt water o Sponges were originally thought to be plants o Haven’t changed over 250mya o Anatomy  Multicellular, but not really any tissues  Only animal you can run through cheese cloth and break it down to individual cells and it will still grow back  Gastrulate Differently  No Digestive, Circulatory, not Respiratory systems  Epidermis covers outside  Mesohyl beneath the epidermis  Amoebocytes float below the mesohyl o Produce cell products important to the sponge  Help choanocytes with catching  Have spicules  Made of carbonate or silica  Support the sponge  Tell us what kind of sponge it is  May have a protein called Spongin  Kind of like a collagen  Opening at top called the osculum  Has pores o Brings water and creatures  Choanocytes catch food that comes through the pores  Reproduction  Asexual o Bud and release new sponge that lands somewhere else and grows  Hermaphroditic o Both male and female reproductive parts o How does it work?  Sperm leaves osculum that enters new sponge through the pores and fertilizes the egg  Larvae is ciliated, and swims until it finds a new place and settles there  Phylum Cnidaria o “Sea Nettle”  A stinging plant o Old name is Phylum Coelenterata o 10,000 species o Diploblastic  Ectoderm and endoderm o Anatomy  Gastroderm  Lining of gastric cavity  Vascular  Not same vascular system like humans  Digest food and move it around the organism  Mouth is surrounded by tentacles  Have Cnidocytes o Coiled up thread with a trigger on the tip  When something touches it, it releases a barb and poison  Polyp  Anus is up  Medusa  Anus is down  Alternates between the two  o Life Cycle  Not alternation of generations even though it may appear like it is  All forms are multicellular diploid o Classes  Hydrozoa  Life Cycle o Dominant is diploid o Medusa stage mobile, polyp stage colonial o Make small medusa that bud off and move around  Can go find other medusa  Make egg and sperm and fertilize to form a zygote  Growing polyp buds off and moves around  Scyphozoa  Jellies o Reduced polyp stage o Medusozoans  Mercy of the currents  Can’t sense anything , so food just happens to float into its tentacles  Nettles  Cubozoa (Bad guys)  Very potent venom  Box jellies o Mostly in Australia o 1 gram of poison can kill 60 people  If you are stung 10 ft from shore, you won’t make it o Look like a jellyfish  Sea Wasps  Anthozoa  AKA Sea flowers  Sea anemones o Slightly move  Corals o Convert CO2 to calcium carbonate o Are being depleted  Important because balance waves o Stick out small antenna when living and trying to get food o Many have symbiotic relationship with algae  Phylum Ctenophora o Only about 100 species o People think they are jelly fish o Glow in the dark with comb like cilia o Catches organisms with sticky substance  Only 1 species has a harpoon mechanism o Comb Jelly  Largest animal to move by cilia  The Acoelomates o Phylum Platyhelmithes  Flat Worms  Brightly colored  Most animals hide from brightly colored animals  Sever predators  Bilateral symmetry  Nerve pores going down both sides of work  Ganglia  Cell body of neurons that come together at the head to make a nerve processing center (like a brain)  Eyespots  Determines size of organisms overhead  Have Flame Cells o Protonephridia  Very early excretory like system o Are cilia  Puts water into the system and quickly gets rid of the water so the cell doesn’t lyse under hypertonic environments  Mesoderm  Muscle comes from mesoderm  Flat worms can move  Can regenerate  Classes  Tubellaria  Trematoda o Flukes o Have suckers o Complicated Life Cycle  Gets into water by human fecal material and makes it into a ciliated larva  Infect a snail until a motile larva develops o Live in snail for part of life time o Can go through birds also  Snails don’t come out during the day, but a parasite makes the snail stupid and comes out into the day  Signals birds by moving antennas and the parasite is back into the bird  Leaves the snail as a motile larvae and buries into a human food  Causes Schistosoma in humans o Parasitic, so don’t need gastric system because host does it for them  Cestoda o Tape Worms o Has suckers and hooks and lives in the gut  If doesn’t hook, then the peristaltic waves will push them out o Proglottids  Behind the head that holds eggs and sperms  Can have up to 80,000-100,000 eggs each in 20,000 segments  Eggs are released via fecal material and are hoped to grow elsewhere  Psuedocoelomates o The lophophorozoans o Phylum Rotifera  Rotifers  Somewhat looks like a protist  First creature with a digestive system with mouth and anus  Many species are cell constant animals  Can’t do mitosis after embryonic development o Can’t grow o Can’t repair themselves if something bites them  Can act has a hydrostatic skeleton  Fluid in the cavity  Pushed against muscle to make it more efficient with movement  Females have parthenogenesis  “Virgin birth”  Females produce eggs that don’t have to be fertilized and will develop into a new female  If times get rough, can make male eggs and undergo sexual reproduction o Phylum Nematoda  Round worms  No circulatory system  Pseudocoelem acts like a circular system  Has a mesoderm  Only longitudinal muscles, so they just flop  Some of free living, some are parasitic (50 species to humans)  Nematodes lubricate soil  Nematodes ruin plants  Trichonella Spiralis  Parasitic round worm that causes trichinosis o Humans get it from eating bad pork o Gets into muscles of pig and make encysted juveniles  Larva makes way via lymphatic system o Works get liberated by digestive tissues and get into your muscle that creates muscle damage and anemia  Ascaris  Parasitic round worm that lives in the intestinal tract o Can get from vegetables o Ends up going to the lungs and essentially suffocates you o Travels from intestines to blood stream to heart to lungs, in which you cough up and transmit to someone else and the cycle continues o Can grow to 30cm longs  Pinworms  Comes out the anus  Hookworms  Hook onto bottom surface on animals  Elephantiasis  Worm gets into your vessels and blocks them  Causes tissue damage  Worms can control your genes!!!


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.