Fungi and Intro to Animals
Fungi and Intro to Animals BY 124
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miles Grigorian on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BY 124 at University of Alabama at Birmingham taught by Dr. Cusic in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Intro To Biology 124 in Biology at University of Alabama at Birmingham.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Bio Notes Week 4 Chapter 29: Fungi Eukaryotic, closer to animals than plants o Different from animals in 3 ways: Nutritional mode Absorptive rather than ingested Break down organic substance outside of the organisms and then sucks it up again Two ways fungi get their food: o Saprophytic Live on dead stuff Important for decomposing and returning carbon and nitrogen into the environment o Parasitic Live on living things 50 different species of fungi that cause problems in humans Athlete’s foot Difficult to get rid of because they are eukaryotic cells as well as the rest of your body, so can’t target them as well as you could with a bacterial infection Mutualistic Relationship with some plants o Mycorrhizae Mutualistic Relationship with some animals o Leaf cutter ant o Go out into the tree and cut pieces of leaves, then take the leaves back to the nest where to put a fungus on the leaves to decompose Ants clean the leaves so the leaves can only be treated by a specific fungus Structural Organization Hyphae o Continuous cell-like structures with multiple nuclei that may be separated Haploid nuclei Two nuclei that are the same are known as a Dikaryon Coenocytic o Have multiple nuclei in same cell o Basic building block o Get together to make a mycelium Make the largest living organism on the planet o Eat a mushroom Eating the reproductive structure, but the mycelium is still there Some are going to be rhizoids Haustorium o Secretes exoenzymes in organism to breaks down living cells around it Cell walls made of chitin Reproduction Life Cycle o Asexual Mycelium has spore producing structures that produce spores and are released o Sexual Another mycelium fuses to another’s cytoplasm, or Plasmogamy, and makes a heterokaryotic stage Karyogamy occurs, in which nuclei fuse together to make the only diploid stage Goes through meiosis to make haploid spores which are released to from new haploid fungi o Yeast reproduce by budding since they are single-celled o Two different types of Fungi Chytrids Chytridiomycota Most primitive Mostly aquatic Different from other fungi because they have flagella and flagellated zoo spores o Fungi because they have: Chitin Absorptive Coenocytic Hyphae Zygomycetes The Zygote/Conjugation Function Black Bread Mold o Black stuff on the mold is Rhizopus o Fungus grows because there are preservatives on the bread Life cycle o Asexual Spores grow down into mycelium and grow into sporangium Undergoes mitosis to produce spores o Sexual Mating types come together and undergo Plasmogamy (fusion of cytoplasm) and Karyogamy (fusion of nuclei) Zygosporangium forms from the karyogamy Forms a diploid nucleus Diploid stage is only unicellular Sporangium grows from diploid nuclei Uses a Pilobus to shoot spores Can go up to 2m so that spores will land on grass and animals will eat the grass (won’t eat the fungus) Glomeromycetes Ascomycota (ascomycetes) Largest division of fungi Sac fungi o Unicellular yeast o Powdery mildew Life Cycle o Asexual Uses a conidia (dust) o Sexual Mating types Plasmogamy and karyogamy form An Ascus forms during Plasmogamy 4 haploid nuclei undergo mitosis in the ascus to form 8 ascospores Lots cause plant disease, but some you can eat o Morel Edible Expensive o Tuber melanosporum Not chocolate Truffle oil Almost as expensive as gold Grew underground and needed to release spores Used pigs to help the spores come out, females were more attracted Androstenol o Kind of like Androgen (male hormone) o Fungi released which attracted more female pigs than male pigs o Plant Diseases Corn Smut Tar on Maple Leaves Ergots on rye One of the most toxic substance known to humans Causes hallucinations and convulsions o Natural Derivative of LSD Reason for witches during the Salem Witch Trials Lichen o Symbiotic relationship between some fungi and some plant or Protist o Foliose Leaf like lichen o Crustose o Sensitive to environmental conditions Many are dying from pollution o Reproduction Takes a piece of algae and little piece of fungi and releases it as a Soredia Has ascocarps Basidiomycota Mushrooms Shelf fungus o Bad news if growing off of side of tree o Can break down cellulose Puffballs o If you hit a ripe one, a cloud of “dust” will blow up in the air o Don’t want in your eye Maiden Veil Fungus o If you take the veil off of it, they look obscene Life Cycle o Don’t usually do asexual o Sexual Mating types Underneath Mushroom Region where karyogamy and Plasmogamy occur Undergoes mitosis to form 4 basidiospores to form diploid nuclei Form haploid spores by undergoing meiosis and will make mycelia Some are very toxic o Shuts down transportation in liver o No toxic cure Southeast USA is the Mecca of Mushrooms Psilocybin o AKA “Shrooms” o Hallucinating effects Deuteromycota “Imperfect Fungus” We don’t know anything about them o Researchers place newly found species in here until they can identify the correct phylum Usually ends up being Ascomycota Disease Yeast Athlete’s foot Histoplasmosis Ethylene (yes, the one in plants) o Causes the fungal spores to germinate also Chapter 32: Intro to Animals Kingdom Animalia o 35 different phyla o Eukaryotic No cell walls o Heterotrophic Have to have some way to get the food, and have a way to digest it Also have to get rid of waste Urine or fecal material o More distinct multicellular species with animals o Need oxygen Don’t need CO2 How to get oxygen and release CO2 o Store glucose as glycogen o Communication o Fertilization Egg and zygote Cleavage Means becoming multicellular Gastrulation Forms the primary germ layers Think of a balloon and push your hand into it o Cells on inside and outside with a hollow middle, or Blastopore Develops into either an anus or a mouth depending on what animal you are o Animals have an ectoderm and an endoderm Some have mesoderms o Hoax Genes Important in embryonic development Determine what animals look like 4 legs or 2 arms and 2 legs Tentacles o Evolution Animals shared a common ancestor with choanoflagellates Single cell flagellate cells that grow on a stalk First animal fossils about 550mya Cambrian Explosion Lots of creatures appeared on Earth Half of all living species had a presence during this time What happened to cause the great diversity of life? o Some are predators Predator and prey drives evolution Predator gets better, then the prey gets better, and the cycle continues o Hoax Genes Get lots of diversity o Increase in Oxygen during this time period Creatures had better cellular respiration The first split Anything that split from the flagellates become Metazoa o Then split to the Eumetazoa (animal like) and Parazoa (Sponges) Radial/Bilateral Split Radial o Like a pie o Like a cup o Sessile o First two group are called Diploblastic and Triploblastic Endodermis and Ectodermic Endodermis, ectodermis, and mesodermis Bilateral o Left and right side o Have a head usually o Can be more mobile o Also has sense organs to determine its environment Acoelomate o No body cavity Coelomate o Body cavity o Surrounded by mesoderm Pseudocoelomate o Have a space but is not a true body cavity Not surrounded by red mesoderm Are they Protostomes or Deuterostomes? Protostome (Blastopore becomes mouth) o Mouth first o worms Deuterostome (Blastopore becomes anus) o Mouth second o Humans Cleavage 8 cell stage in development o Spiral and Determinate Fate of blastopores is determined early If separated, then only have 1 organism o Radial and indeterminate Fate of blastopores undetermined If separate, can become multiple organisms Can get identical twins Body cavities Gives space for organs to function If you bend over, your organs aren’t protruding for your body Segmented Creatures Humans are segmented Vertebrae good visualization of segmentation o Difference between morphological and molecular aspect Sponges are different Agreed by all Also agreed on radial symmetry, and rest are bilateral Division of Protostomes into 2 groups Ecydoszoa o Nematoda Spilt exoskeleton to shed outer layer that allows them to grow o Arthropoda Lophotrochozoa o Use a lophotrch to feed Chapter 33 – Invertebrates Phylum Porifera o “to bear pores” o Sponges o 5,500 species that live underwater in both fresh and salt water o Sponges were originally thought to be plants o Haven’t changed over 250mya o Anatomy Multicellular, but not really any tissues Only animal you can run through cheese cloth and break it down to individual cells and it will still grow back Gastrulate Differently No Digestive, Circulatory, not Respiratory systems Epidermis covers outside Mesohyl beneath the epidermis Amoebocytes float below the mesohyl o Produce cell products important to the sponge Help choanocytes with catching Have spicules Made of carbonate or silica Support the sponge Tell us what kind of sponge it is May have a protein called Spongin Kind of like a collagen Opening at top called the osculum Has pores o Brings water and creatures Choanocytes catch food that comes through the pores Reproduction Asexual o Bud and release new sponge that lands somewhere else and grows Hermaphroditic o Both male and female reproductive parts o How does it work? Sperm leaves osculum that enters new sponge through the pores and fertilizes the egg Larvae is ciliated, and swims until it finds a new place and settles there Phylum Cnidaria o “Sea Nettle” A stinging plant o Old name is Phylum Coelenterata o 10,000 species o Diploblastic Ectoderm and endoderm o Anatomy Gastroderm Lining of gastric cavity Vascular Not same vascular system like humans Digest food and move it around the organism Mouth is surrounded by tentacles Have Cnidocytes o Coiled up thread with a trigger on the tip When something touches it, it releases a barb and poison Polyp Anus is up Medusa Anus is down Alternates between the two o Life Cycle Not alternation of generations even though it may appear like it is All forms are multicellular diploid o Classes Hydrozoa Life Cycle o Dominant is diploid o Medusa stage mobile, polyp stage colonial o Make small medusa that bud off and move around Can go find other medusa Make egg and sperm and fertilize to form a zygote Growing polyp buds off and moves around Scyphozoa Jellies o Reduced polyp stage o Medusozoans Mercy of the currents Can’t sense anything , so food just happens to float into its tentacles Nettles Cubozoa (Bad guys) Very potent venom Box jellies o Mostly in Australia o 1 gram of poison can kill 60 people If you are stung 10 ft from shore, you won’t make it o Look like a jellyfish Sea Wasps Anthozoa AKA Sea flowers Sea anemones o Slightly move Corals o Convert CO2 to calcium carbonate o Are being depleted Important because balance waves o Stick out small antenna when living and trying to get food o Many have symbiotic relationship with algae Phylum Ctenophora o Only about 100 species o People think they are jelly fish o Glow in the dark with comb like cilia o Catches organisms with sticky substance Only 1 species has a harpoon mechanism o Comb Jelly Largest animal to move by cilia The Acoelomates o Phylum Platyhelmithes Flat Worms Brightly colored Most animals hide from brightly colored animals Sever predators Bilateral symmetry Nerve pores going down both sides of work Ganglia Cell body of neurons that come together at the head to make a nerve processing center (like a brain) Eyespots Determines size of organisms overhead Have Flame Cells o Protonephridia Very early excretory like system o Are cilia Puts water into the system and quickly gets rid of the water so the cell doesn’t lyse under hypertonic environments Mesoderm Muscle comes from mesoderm Flat worms can move Can regenerate Classes Tubellaria Trematoda o Flukes o Have suckers o Complicated Life Cycle Gets into water by human fecal material and makes it into a ciliated larva Infect a snail until a motile larva develops o Live in snail for part of life time o Can go through birds also Snails don’t come out during the day, but a parasite makes the snail stupid and comes out into the day Signals birds by moving antennas and the parasite is back into the bird Leaves the snail as a motile larvae and buries into a human food Causes Schistosoma in humans o Parasitic, so don’t need gastric system because host does it for them Cestoda o Tape Worms o Has suckers and hooks and lives in the gut If doesn’t hook, then the peristaltic waves will push them out o Proglottids Behind the head that holds eggs and sperms Can have up to 80,000-100,000 eggs each in 20,000 segments Eggs are released via fecal material and are hoped to grow elsewhere Psuedocoelomates o The lophophorozoans o Phylum Rotifera Rotifers Somewhat looks like a protist First creature with a digestive system with mouth and anus Many species are cell constant animals Can’t do mitosis after embryonic development o Can’t grow o Can’t repair themselves if something bites them Can act has a hydrostatic skeleton Fluid in the cavity Pushed against muscle to make it more efficient with movement Females have parthenogenesis “Virgin birth” Females produce eggs that don’t have to be fertilized and will develop into a new female If times get rough, can make male eggs and undergo sexual reproduction o Phylum Nematoda Round worms No circulatory system Pseudocoelem acts like a circular system Has a mesoderm Only longitudinal muscles, so they just flop Some of free living, some are parasitic (50 species to humans) Nematodes lubricate soil Nematodes ruin plants Trichonella Spiralis Parasitic round worm that causes trichinosis o Humans get it from eating bad pork o Gets into muscles of pig and make encysted juveniles Larva makes way via lymphatic system o Works get liberated by digestive tissues and get into your muscle that creates muscle damage and anemia Ascaris Parasitic round worm that lives in the intestinal tract o Can get from vegetables o Ends up going to the lungs and essentially suffocates you o Travels from intestines to blood stream to heart to lungs, in which you cough up and transmit to someone else and the cycle continues o Can grow to 30cm longs Pinworms Comes out the anus Hookworms Hook onto bottom surface on animals Elephantiasis Worm gets into your vessels and blocks them Causes tissue damage Worms can control your genes!!!
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