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Exploration and Jamestown.

by: Summer Notetaker

Exploration and Jamestown.

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Spanish, English, French, and Dutch in the New World. Includes the motivation of each country and the first few colonies. Class notes from 8/22/16 and 8/24/16. The background information of ...
US History Up to 1865
Carol Halperin
Class Notes
Exploration, World History, APUSH, jamestown, tobacco, history




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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Summer Notetaker on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Saint Mary's College taught by Carol Halperin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
History 201 - Exploration 8/22/16-8/24/16 400 years ago - there were only a handful of European scattered in the New WOrld (In Chronological Order of Arrival) 1. Spanish 2. English 3. French 4. Dutch They were generally looking for ● Silver and gold ● A quicker route to Asia ● Expand Empires Exploitation of Natural Resources ● Missionary Work Motivation for Exploration Spain England T​rade P​rofit E​xpansion P​opulation E​xploitation P​overty M​issionary Work P​rotestantism P​recedent LOOKING AT THE ​SPANISH​ EXPLORATION OF THE NEW WORLD Explorers Christopher Colombus ❖ Italian that worked for Spain ❖ first voyage - 1942 ➢ Three ships ■ You know the rhyme ➢ 10 weeks spent at sea before hitting land ■ Did not realize this was a new continent → thought he hit India (hence the term indians) ❖ Second Voyage - 1493 ➢ Established Hispaniola ➢ Introduced pigs, cattle and horses to this are (not native to this land at this time) ❖ Third Voyage - 1498 ➢ Hit South America ■ FINALLY realized this was its own Continent! Balboa ❖ First explorer to reach the pacific ocean from the atlantic - 1513 Pon de Leon ❖ 1513 - Discovered Florida ➢ Florida = flowery St Augustine → Spanish Settlement was established somewhere in this time period Cortes ❖ Mexico ❖ 1518 - 1521 ❖ Devastated the native population and took control of lan ❖ To make sure his men were committed to the cause, he burned his ships upon arrival to mexico ➢ There was no turning back at this point Cortes vs Aztecs Cortes Aztecs ● Had maybe a few hundred men. ● Millions of people ● They had some advantages ● A very strong and wealthy empire ○ Aztecs have never seen Horses or Gunpowder ● Welcomed cortes into the city ■ They welcomed Cortes ○ They were vulnerable to and his men into the disease capital and treated ○ They were intimidated them like gods. ○ They were ○ Aztecs have never dealt with defenseless/undefended smallpoxs ■ Europeans were generally immune to smallpox - but natives were not. De Soto ❖ 1539 - 1542 ❖ Made it to mississippi river ❖ Florida Coronado ❖ Western mexico, Mexico and Texas ➢ Southern us and colorado river ❖ 1540 - 1542 ❖ El paso de norto 1559 ❖ San Miguel 1540 Spanish Frontiers 1. Mexico 2. New mexico 3. Arizona 4. Texas a. Needed this location to defend territories b. Hated the weather 5. California a. Father Serra What was introduced to these areas: What was introduced to America What was introduced to Europe ● Smallpox, yellow fever, and many ● Silver and gold (larger supply) other diseases ● Corn and potatoes ● Cattle, pigs, and horses ● Syphilis (becomes an epidemic) ● Gunpowder ● sugarcane LOOKING AT THE English​ EXPLORATION OF THE NEW WORLD Motivations for exploration: P​rofit P​opulation P​overty P​rotestantism P​recedent England was ● Lacking land ○ Recently recovering from the black plague ■ Population was recovering and growing ● Not enough land and food to support this large population ● Due to Protestantism ○ Puritans and Catholics were unhappy ■ In search of religious freedom ● England was known for their naxy ○ They exhausted resources in England and needed more supplies to maintain the navy ● England wanted to remain relevant and in control of remote regions ○ They had recently gained control of Ireland First Colony - Roanoke 1585 - left 100 men 1586 - brought more men to the colony ~*~*~*~*~ got distracted with maritime warfare with the Spanish Armada ~*~*~*~*~ 1589 - returned to find the colony had disappeared Known as: THE LOST COLONY OF ROANOKE LOOKING AT THE French​ EXPLORATION OF THE NEW WORLD Quebec - 1608 Generally in Canada ● Different style of dealing w/ natives ○ Better at forging bonds with them ○ Better at blending w/ the locals ■ ex) would marry the local women ● French missionaries ● Trappers ○ Able to develop extensive trade relations ■ Weapons and fur LOOKING AT THE Dutch​ EXPLORATION OF THE NEW WORLD Henry Hudson - 1609 → Hudson River (Just exploring at this point) → Established trade posts 1624 → brought settlers to the trade post New Netherlands (today’s New York State) Capital of this region = New Amsterdam (today’s NYC) History 201 - The English in Virginia 8/26/16 NOTE: Queen Elizabeth I was the monarch at the time 1585 ​- The Lost Colony of ​Roanoke was established Initially: 100 men. No women. 1586​ - Sir Francis Drake sails to the colony and takes these men home (back to england) They could not handle the rough lifestyle. 1587​ - Another group of settlers was brought to Roanoke Included women this time England promised to send supplies ~*~around a 3 year gap w/ no contact between the colony and England due to maritime warfare~*~ 1589/1590​ - ship came with supplies for colony and found nothing. The colony had disappeared without a trace. → how it got the name ​The Lost Colony of Roanoke → ​the only thing found was “Croatan” carved on a tree Virginia Dan ● First english child born in America ● Apart of the roanoke colony ● We do not know what happened to her her. ○ Very tragic. The failure of this colony showed that settlement would be difficult. ● It would require money and supplies ● Required settlers with the skills to survive ○ At this time the colonists did not plant crops ■ They spent a majority of their time looking for gold and silver ■ A good majority of the ​initial settlers were military men, not​ Theyrs. did not know how to fend for themselves or plant crops. ○ The Farmers usually stayed in England to take care of their land. They were unavailable at this time to send over to the colonies. This shows that these originally english colonies were thought​ emporary.​ Just a business venture. Not permanent. Reasons why England wanted to colonize: ● Base of piracy against Spain ● They wanted to find passage to Asia ○ Did not realize how big America really is at the time ● They wanted to find metals and treasure ● Plants for medicine and dyes ● Timer to expand navy Queen Elizabeth I - wants to expand and colonize but does not want to pay for it → she finds sponsors → ​joint stock companies This was a ​risky investment​ If the colony failed then you could lose A LOT OF MONEY. It was​ ery rewarding​, If the colony succeeded. King James I (Successor to Queen Elizabeth I) ● The Virginia Company - 1606 ○ Plymouth Company ■ Fails ○ London Company ■ first successful attempt at english colonization ● Jamestown History 201 - Jamestown. Powhatan Indians. Tobacco. Land. Indentured Servants. The good stuff. Ect. Jamestown ● Founded by the Virginia Company ● 3 ships - Godspeed, the Discovery and Susan’s Constant ○ Around 122/144 men aboard ■ Only 100 men survived the trip ● Reached Jamestown in 1607 ○ First permanent english settlement ● Located in swamp land. ○ The settlers could have avoided a lot of disease and death if they did not settle in the swamp and picked a better location with better water conditions ■ Dealt with malaria, fever, ect ● Once again there were ​NO FARMERS​ on these ships ○ The men that came to Jamestown were: ■ Looking for gold and silver ■ Military men ■ Gentlemen that lacked survival skills ● Generally second or third sons that would not inherit land from family In the beginning - everything was communal. ● There was no private land. ● Settlers lacked motivation because of this ○ They wanted to do things that would benefit themselves ○ Timeline of the First Few Years Fall 1607 No crops were planted. Spring 1608 Population was reduced to 38 out of 100. Clearly they did not know how to survive. They were reduced to cannibalism. 1608 England brought more settlers to the colony. 1609 England brought women to the colony Winter 1609-1610 Known as the ​Starving Time *After the Starving Time occurred, it beca​ artial law to plant f​od. They were forced to survive​. Martial law = laws created by government and some form of enforcement of these laws Lord of Jamestown = Lord De La Warr. ● He created the martial laws here Captain John Smith ● In charge of enforcing these laws ● Whipped the people into shape ○ This was necessary to survive Martial law - Death penalty for these crimes: ● Theft ● Rape ● Kill domestic animals ● lying/blasphemy Note: Jamestown had built a wall around the colony to build a fort at this point. → ​There was still an 80% death rate despite these laws ● Due to bad environment ○ Disease and unsafe water ● Men were still fairly unmotivated ○ They just sat around and were not used to working to survive. They are gentlemen after all. ● Failure to work together ● Attacks from the local Indian tribes. What it takes to motivate the men: Private Land ownership. 1610 - What Virginia Needs 1. A commercial viable product a. England needs to be able to justify the money spent on establishing Jamestown 2. They need farmers. a. Clearly the gentlemen are useless. 3. Some form of labor. a. Once again the gentlemen are useless. 4. Some form of self government. a. England is too far away to be efficient at governing the colony Powhatan Indians ● They survived very well in the swamp lands ● Valued leisure time ○ Reaped the most work without doing a lot of work ● They lived off of: con, fruit trees and nut trees. ● Captain John Smith ○ Taken prisoner by them ○ Saved by Pocahontas ■ Pocahontas married John Rolfe - not John Smith Tobacco ● Introduced to Virginia by John Rolfe ○ Brought from Asia ● This crop flourished in the swampland of Virginia. 1612 Tobacco was introduced to the colony 1617 20,000 lbs was exported to England 1627 500,000 lbs exported to England *England realized that this land was a gold mine due to potential for agriculture Agriculture defined English settlement at this point in time. Laws had to be set in place to make sure that settlers would grow crops as well as tobacco. Land Ownership/Tenure Systems in Place 1. The settlers could buy the land from the company 2. The Headrights Program a. Anyone that pays for the passage of 1 person to Virginia is guaranteed 50 acres of land. This way companies can earn a small profit in return for land. These programs gave men the right to own land and the ability to pass it down to their descendents This was motivation to grow crops and to survive. Laborers Tenants Company pays for the passage of an individual In return that individual would give the company half of their profits for 7 years. After 7 years the individual was ​able to keep​ t​ hat land Other indentured servants Company or other wealthy individuals - would pay for the passage of an individual in return for labor services for 7 years. They were unable to keep that land. *Big Plantations did not occur until the 18th century. Not at the point of slavery yet. Laborers were expensive. There was a high death rate - no guarantee of profit (which is problematic) The House of Burgesses - 1619 First legislative Assembly In America ● People were elected from the colony to assemble with the company officials and represent the interests of the people. At this point: ​ The Colonies lacked a sense of Permanence and Home. There were a few women and too many men. It lacked the sense of family. High death rate. Focus on tobacco. Enforced self preservation. They would not gain that sense of permanence and community until: They built taverns. They built churches. They established a system of self governance and county courts.


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