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Week 1 Notes

by: Mattie Braselton

Week 1 Notes CHEM 1145

Mattie Braselton

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Basic Unit Conversion, Physical Versus Chemical Changes, Scientific Method
gen chem
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mattie Braselton on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1145 at Georgia Southern University taught by Staff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see gen chem in Chemistry at Georgia Southern University.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
Scientific Method  What is the scientific method?  The scientific method is a process for experimentation that is used to explore observations and answer  questions.  An initial idea or explanation about a problem in science is called a hypothesis.   A developed hypothesis which is supported by an experiment is known as a theory.  Physical versus Chemical Properties  Chemical change is any change that results in the formation of new chemical substances. At the  molecular level, chemical change involves making or breaking of bonds between atoms. These changes  are chemical:  iron rusting (iron oxide forms)  gasoline burning (water vapor and carbon dioxide form)  eggs cooking (fluid protein molecules uncoil and crosslink to form a network)  bread rising (yeast converts carbohydrates into carbon dioxide gas)  milk souring (sour­tasting lactic acid is produced)  suntanning (vitamin D and melanin is produced) Physical change rearranges molecules but doesn't affect their internal structures. Some examples of  physical change are:  boiling water (water molecules are forced away from each other when the liquid changes to  vapor, but the molecules are still 2 O.)  dissolving sugar in water (sugar molecules are dispersed within the water, but the individual  sugar molecules are unchanged.)  dicing potatoes (cutting usually separates molecules without changing them.) 1 Problem Set 1 (P vs C changes): Directions: Classify the following as a physical or chemical change.  1. Water, when heated, turning into steam   ____________ 2. Battery corroding ______________ 3. An apple is cut. _____________  4. Ice melts. _____________ 5. Wood rots. _____________ 6. Baking soda reacts with vinegar. _____________ 7. Milk sours. _____________ 8. Paper towel absorbs water. _____________ 9. Pancakes cook. _____________ 10. Iron rust. _____________ Problem Set 2 (P vs C changes): Directions: Classify the following as a physical or chemical property:  1. Color _____________ 2. Density _____________ 3. Flammability _____________ 4. Solubility _____________ 5. Reacts with acid _____________ 6. Supports combustion _____________ 7. Melting point _____________ 8. Reacts with water _____________ 9. Hardness _____________ 10. Odor _____________ Separation and Purifying Techniques (covered first day of class).  Types discussed in class: Distillation, filtration, and chromatography.  Distillation-Distillation is a widely used method for separating mixtures based on differences in the conditions required to change the phase of components of the mixture. To separate a mixture of liquids, the liquid can be heated to force components, which have different boiling points, into the gas phase. The gas is then condensed back into liquid form and collected. (this is how alcohol is made)  Filtration - method for separating an insoluble solid from a liquid. This is based on particle size.  Chromatography- a method of separation based on solubility where a mobile phase moves over a stationary phase. 2 Units of Measurement – SI Units and Metric System The SI is founded on seven SI base units for seven base quantities assumed to be mutually independent (meaning length and mass are completely different. SI Units Units of Measurement Base Units Symbol length meter m mass kilogram kg time second s electric current ampere A thermodynamic kelvin K temperature amount of substance mole mol luminous intensity candela cd Metric System Conversion Prefixes Mnemonic: Gran MacDadd King Hecto Died By Drinkin Chocolate Muscle Milk Nightly d y r g Prefix:  Giga Mega Kilo Hecto Dec Base deci centi mili micro nano a Abbreviation G M k h da None d c m μ n :  Exponential  10 9 106 103 102 101 10­1 10 ­2 10­3 10­6 10­9 Multiplier: 1. 261 g  kg 7. 1 year  minutes 2. 3 days seconds 8. 175 lbs kg (Note: 2.2 lb = 1 kg) 3. 9,474 mm  cm 9. 5.91kgmg 4. 0.73 kL  L 10. 9 in mm (Note: 2.54 cm = 1 in) 5. 5.93 cm   m3 11. 9.437 Gm kg 6. 498.82 cg  mg 12. 900 nm  cm 3 13. Temperature and Density 14.  Temperature is the measure of average kinetic energy in a substance. If there is no kinetic energy  or no random motion of particles in a substance, that is known as absolute zero.  Density is defined as the degree of compactness of a substance. To find it, mass divided by  volume.  15. Temperature Conversions:  1. 67 ° C  K 2. 900°K C 3. 45°FC 4. 10,078°CF 5. 90°FK 16. Density Problem:  1. A sample of iron has the same dimensions of 2 cm x 3 cm x 2 cm. If the mass of this rectangular­ shaped object is 94 g, what is the density of iron? 17. 18. 2. Five mL of ethanol has a mass of 3.9 g, and 5.0 mL of benzene has a mass of 44 g. Which liquid  is denser? 19. 20. 21. Significant Figures and Scientific Notation 22. Review of Rules for Significant Figures: 23.One very important addition to “scientific” numbers is expressing exactly how precise the measurement or calculation is expected to be.  Numerals 1-9: are always significant (ex: 431 has 3 significant figures)  Enclosed zeros (between numerals): are always significant (ex. 3204 has 4 significant figures)  Leading zeros: are never significant (ex: 0.031 has only 2 significant figures)  Trailing zeros: are significant IF there is a decimal (ex: 34900 - 3 sig figs or 14.100 -5 sig figs) 24. 25.Practice: How many significant figures are in these? 1. 2040_____________ 2. 12.300___________ 3. 937000000000___________ 4. 0.0021 _______________ 5. 70.00600 ______________- 6. 0.08450 ____________ 7. 0.02340 _____________ 8. 8.450*10 -2 _______________ 26.Practice: Write the above numbers in scientific notation 1. ____________________ 2. ____________________ 3. ____________________ 4. ____________________ 5. ____________________ 6. ____________________ 7. ____________________ 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.


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