Ch. 4 continued (psych of gender)
Ch. 4 continued (psych of gender) Psy 383
Popular in Health Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mina Sezan on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 383 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. David Sbarra in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Ch.4 (continued) Sex Comparisons: Observations 9/22 review from last class: http://rpsychologist.com/d3/cohend/ o Visual to illustrate “effect size” Clicker question: Which of the following is TRUE about sex differences and math ability? A) Current data on math ability show medium effect size that favor females B) Current data on math ability show medium effect size that favor males C) Females receive better math grades than males D) Females report more self-confidence in math ability (large effect size) Sex Comparisons in Social Domain Domain Empathy involves feeling the same emotion as another person (“feeling with”) or feeling compassion for another o Cognitive empathy (perspective-taking) o Emotional empathy (shared feelings) Are women really more empathetic o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=coOYa4h98M4 sleepless in Seattle clip talking about a movie they saw (2 males) and see the difference between male and female a woman is also in the conversation and tells it from her perspective, and is more emotional about it and chokes up the males’ kind of roll their eyes and mock it o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7hFAv8z8xmw clip from modern family examples of empathy from women men are clueless about women’s feelings and trying to understand the mind of a woman (his wife) as he is at the spa talking to all the moms/wives the husband learning what to say (good lines/ agreeing with her/ on her side) when the wife is complaining about something Older meta-analysis revealed small sex difference in empathy favoring females (d=.18) But it’s complicated Size of effect depends on how empathy is operationalized and measured o Larger difference on self-report measures (demand characteristics?) o Smaller difference on observational and behavioral measures o Less clear differences on physiological measures What about Helping Behavior? Early meta-analysis: men more helpful (d=.34), but difference limited to help in dangerous situations Moderator variable include: o Sex of person needing help (males more likely to help females than other males) Gender role stereotypes in the examples (the males) o Public (men more; demand characteristics?) vs. private setting (more even) In public more people are around (gender role stereotypes) men are more likely to help In a private setting, no one is really around compared to a public setting What about “social dilemma” research? Social dilemma: conflict in which your self-interest is pitted against the interest of others o What’s good for self is harmful to the group o What’s good for group is not optimal for self Generally, no overall sex difference in laboratory studies, although: o All-male groups more cooperative than all-female groups (d=.16) <small effect size> o Females more cooperative than males in mixed groups (d=.22) <small effect size> What more about “real life” helping? Women’s help generally more “communal” o Women more likely to be volunteers or caregivers (caring for individuals) o Caring for individuals, relationship focus o Occupations of caregiving roles Men’s help generally more “agentic” o More “heroic help” or helping in danger o Heroic help situation, more power focused o Occupations like firefighters, police, etc. Consider “demands” associated with stereotypes Aggression (physical) Men more likely to be perpetrators and victims of aggression but situational variables important Sex difference in aggression smaller o Under condition of provocation (d=.17 compared to d=.33) o Very low or very high emotional arousal In figure 4.11 (a graph) slide 25 At low and high levels of arousal, sex differences in aggression are small. At medium levels of arousal, sex differences in aggression are largest What about other types of aggression? Verbal aggression: No to small sex differences (d=.03-.13) o Relational Aggression (hurting relationships) o Is it really like this? o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-sm6Qb6VTn4 mean girls clip all on 4-way call talking smack! BOO YOU WHORE Not really: Basically no sex differences (d=.06) What about gender difference in sexuality? Sexuality Sex differences depends on definition of sexuality Results of meta-analyses: compared to women, men show more sexual behavior o More permissive attitudes toward sex (d=.10), more casual sex (d=.18-.38), more sex partners (d=.15-.36), and more frequent masturbation (d=.53-.58) o Exception: frequency of same-sex sexual behavior Women have more favorable attitudes toward gay men (d=.18); no sex differences in attitudes toward lesbians Most data on sexuality via self-report o Impact of self-censoring General Personality Attributes Across 26 cultures, small but consistent sex differences o Men more assertive o Women more submissive, nurturing, more negative affect Study of 55 countries, sex differences in Big 5 personality traits o Women more neurotic (d=.40), extraverted (d=.10), agreeable (d=.12) conscientious (d=.12) o No sex difference in openness to experience Moral Development Kohlberg originally used the “Heinz dilemma” to measure moral development o Developed theory of moral development: Level 1 Pre-Mortality o Stage 1. Punishment and obedience orientation: Doing what is right because of fear of punishment o Stage 2. Hedonistic orientation: Doing what is right for personal gain, perhaps a reward. Level 2 Conventional Morality o Stage 3. Interpersonal concordance orientation: Doing what is right according to the majority to be a good boy/girl o Stage 4. Law and order orientation: Doing what is right because it is your duty and helps society Level 3 Post-Conventional Mortality o Stage 5. Social contract or legalistic orientation: Doing what is right even if it is against the law because the law is too restrictive o Stage 6. Universal ethical principles orientation: Doing what is right because of our inner conscious which has absorbed the principles of justice and equality and sacredness of life Concerns about Kohlberg’s Theory Problem: Studies had excluded women, so theory based only on men’s responses o When women included, scored “lower” on morality (often stage 3 of pleasing others) o Keeping the peace Carol Gilligan (1982): argued that women had different (not inferior) morality o “Morality of responsibility”: connection to others o Men have “Mortality of rights” So, what does the research say? Women score higher on “care orientation” to moral reasoning (d=.28) Men higher on “justice orientation” (d=.19) o Fewer differences when describing standard (v. self-generated) situation o Real-life situation of post 9/11: Women scored higher on both justice and care orientations
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