CJ 203, Week 4 Notes
CJ 203, Week 4 Notes CJ 203
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marie Bourget on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 203 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Dr. Kristine Knutson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see CJ 203 in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Chapter 12: Preparing and Researching Speeches The Power of Public Speaking what are the requirements of public speaking? o speaker with a purpose o audience o a message to achieve the purpose why learn how to speak publicly? o makes you look good to employers, a valuable skill in most professions o gains you a persuasive edge o 75% of people get nervous speaking in front of audiences gain the advantage nervousness can be conquered Clarifying the General Purpose of your Speech Informative Speeches o increase your audience’s understanding of: things, people, phenomena, concepts, processes, policies, etc… Persuasive Speeches o influence your audience’s attitudes, beliefs, behaviors examples: political rallies, environmentalist speeches Special-Occasion (Commemorative) Speeches o introduces speakers, accepts awards, gives toasts o Leonardo DiCaprio’s Oscar speech was commemorative and persuasive Analyzing your Audience audience analysis: process of getting to know listeners o you are trying to convey your message to them considering audience expectations and situational factors o what is the occasion? a wedding? funeral? panel? o culturally, what is the audience like? o should any recent events influence the content of your speech? demographics and psychographics o demographics: physical social categories of people examples: gender, class, race, age o psychographics: psychological qualities examples: political views, values, lifestyles o understandings allow speakers to find good topics consider, however, that you can never know everything research your audience before presenting o try to avoid stereotypes when addressing groups Chapter 12: Preparing and Researching Speeches Anticipate your Audience’s Response consider audience motivation o do they want to listen, or are they being required to? Seek common ground o homogeny: sameness (in experience, identity) find messages applicable/important to all or many determine prior exposure o have they heard this all before? o how much knowledge do they already have? consider dispositions o what does the audience think of your topic? o what does the audience think about you? how to anticipate audience response o observation engage in conversation, send out questionnaires survey and interview your audience use the internet to look up information find past polls, info on demo/psychographics Choosing your Topic consider your instructor’s expectations think about topics that you find intriguing and what you already o less research necessary with prior knowledge o motivation to do research if there is interest o intrigue = enthusiasm: helps your speeches from being drab brainstorming and clustering o brainstorming: the first process get your information together consider problems and solutions with topics think creatively about reactions to topics o clustering: map out your ideas get your core idea and branch out DNC 1968 riots Columbia University 1968 Bobby Kennedy assassinations Martin Luther King Jr. Chapter 12: Preparing and Researching Speeches Choosing your Topic (continued) narrowing down your topic o weigh your interest levels in different topics o consider which topics meet the assigned criteria o judge which topics will be most well received by your audience o consider: specific = manageable break down your main idea into categories determining the specific purpose of your speech o specific purpose statement takes topic and purpose of speech into consideration developing a thesis statement o thesis statement: conveys the main idea of the speech to audience more specific than the specific purpose statement works with specific purpose statement to organize Researching the Topic types of information to consider o testimony: gives a credible other voice expert testimony: professional voice (in your topic’s field) lay testimony: voice with personal experience with topic scholarship and statistics o scientific research findings studies, observations o statistics: collected numerical data reveals trends gives context for size, weight of an issue illustrates relationships between things try to give your audience visuals to aid understanding o anecdotes: short, personal stories gives statistics a human voice o quotations: the words of another, originally expressed vocally be sure to cite all outside sources Researching Supporting Material talk to people o get annotations, lay testimonies, professional opinions o conduct surveys get large groups’ opinions on a topic make sure to check the credibility of the questions (avoid bias) Chapter 12: Preparing and Researching Speeches Researching Supporting Material (continued) search the literature o read a book or magazine, fool o directories: catalogs, like databases, organized by humans fewer results, more pertinent to your specific topic o library gateways: collections of databases and websites organized by subject, heavily reviewed and revised make the most of online research o search engines: Google and all the lesser ones that we never use o metasearch engines: search multiple search engines at once o research search engine: for scholarly results o online databases: collections of scholarly works do research to find best database for your topic Evaluating Supporting Material credible sources o credibility: the reliability, authority, and quality of your content o look up authors’ credentials check for their academic degrees are they affiliated with any credible organizations? o check each articles’ credits trace the information to the source use even more caution on the internet o use up-to-date sources make sure your information isn’t outdated exceptions: speeches on historic topics o have your sources be as accurate as possible exact numbers sound better than vague numbers give your audience the specifics whenever possible o compelling sources support your topic with shocking/thrilling evidence Ethical Speaking: Taking Responsibility for your Speech recognizing plagiarism o plagiarism: the crime of passing others’ works off as your own o better to be safe than sorry when crediting sources keep track of where your information comes from taking accurate notes o monitor your sources use note cards, Evernote, other organization tools Chapter 12: Preparing and Researching Speeches Ethical Speaking: Taking Responsibility for your Speech (continued) taking accurate notes (continued) o highlight the material from each source that you intend to use o track when information is word-for-word (verbatim) or paraphrased o keep a running bibliography (list of sourced sources) as you collect info speaking ethically and responsibly o if your speech and/or the delivery of your speech is inflammatory, expect flames o take responsibility for your words freedom of speech does not protect you from backlash o universal ethics: dignity and integrity dignity: treat your audience with human respect integrity: avoid distortion of information for personal gain o be trustworthy and honest o have respect for your topic and audience o take responsibility for whatever speeches you deliver o be fair to all viewpoints and perspectives VOCABULARY TERMS FOR NOTECARDS public speaking specific purpose library gateways statement informative speeches search engines thesis statement persuasive speeches metasearch engines expert testimony special-occasion research search engine speeches lay testimony credibility audience analysis scientific research plagiarism findings demographics verbatim statistics psychographics paraphrasing homogeny anecdote running bibliography brainstorming survey dignity clustering directories integrity Chapter 13: Organizing, Outlining, and Writing Presentations Organizing your Speech Points identify your main points: central claims, uphold thesis statement o try to keep speech to 3 or 4 main points o each main point should have one big idea supporting your main points o use sub-points to support main points helpful info, statistics, anecdotes, etc… back up sub points with sub-sub-points each sub-point should relate directly back to main point map it out to visualize THESIS STATEMENT main point main point sub-point sub-point sub-point sub-point sub-point sub-point arranging your points: sequences o chronological pattern: organization by time o topical pattern: organization into categories typically by importance primary-regency effect: audience remembers first and last points o spatial pattern: by physical proximity (for places) o problem-solution pattern: obstacle means to overcome 1. problem 2. provide multiple possible answers 3. give the best (your) answer and explain why it is the best o cause-effect pattern: present issue and explain moving backwards o narrative pattern: tell the story usually makes use of other patterns as well o motivated sequence pattern: Alan Monroe’s five phases attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, action connecting your points o use transitions: connecting thoughts and sentences guide your audience through topic changes o signposts: specific transitional phrases (also, additionally, secondly) Chapter 13: Organizing, Outlining, and Writing Presentations Organizing your Speech Points (continued) internal previews: prepare the audience for new sections internal summaries: reiterate previously made points o lock them into your audience members’ minds Using Language that Works respect your audience o do not use inappropriate language keep it simple o don’t “dumb down” your explanations o keep things clear and precise o curtness keeps things from getting long-winded and boring use vivid language to convey thoughts incorporate language devices into your speech o repetition: repeat important points more than once o allusion: vaguely reference widely-known people, phenomena o make comparisons that will stick simile: uses like or as metaphor: likens two things that aren’t alike Writing a Strong Introduction capture your audience’s attention o use surprise, shocking facts first o tell a story, use an anecdote creates personal appeal, gives your topic a human face o start with a quote connect topic to a real person or situation o ask a question get listeners’ attentions, make them think finish with something surprising, throw them for a loop o use humor, make them laugh relieves tension, eases your audience in only for use if you can make it work introduce purpose and thesis o establish your topic, integrate thesis into intro preview your main points connect with your audience o get your audience excited about your speech connect your ideas to a potential to personal gain Chapter 13: Organizing, Outlining, and Writing Presentations Writing a Strong Conclusion signal that the end is nigh o transition phrases such as “in conclusion” or “finally” reinforce your topic, purpose, and main points o make sure your essentials stay in your listeners’ minds make an impact, be memorable, leave audience on a strong note o quotations: strong ones can be impactful make sure they’re pertinent to the topic o statements and questions keep it simple, wrap things up o a final story, anecdote hammer in your topic’s personal importance o reference the introduction loop back to your initial statement answer first question, add final insights challenge audience to respond to your speech o remember how you wanted your audience to react o for persuasive speeches: end with a call to action avoid call to action in informative speeches Outlining your Speech essentials of outlining o use standard symbols Roman Numerals, letters, numbers o use subdivisions properly have at least two sub-points per division o separate the parts of your speech label intro, conclusion, transitions clearly o call out specific purpose and thesis keep main goals at top of page o give citations for your speech as you go mark down footnotes have a bibliography in your format (MLA, APA…) at the back o give your speech a title o check how your speech flows orally good points and transitions flow together well feeling overwhelmed? use mapping tools do some more storming (Chapter 12 term) Chapter 13: Organizing, Outlining, and Writing Presentations Outlining your Speech (continued) styles of outlines: three formats o sentence outline: write out speech sentence by sentence good for initial prep, not for delivery road map your sentences into main/sub-points o key-word outline: one phrase/word per point only if you have a very good grasp on your speech o phase outline: sentence fragments into outline less info than sentence outline, more than key-word outline preferred by most speakers, a happy medium from preparation outline to speaking outline o preparation outline: drafted speech edit and revise as you go, map out speech on paper o speaking outline: final speech plan, tips go from more to less detailed as you revise your outlines o delivery cues: brief reminders to give yourself at certain points o oral citations: points where you tell audience where info came from add preparation for oral citations in your outline o choose a good format to use in front of audience (notecards, outline) TERMS FOR NOTECARDS main points internal previews sub-points internal summaries chronological pattern repetition topical pattern allusion primary-regency effect simile & metaphor spatial pattern sentence outline problem-solution pattern key-word outline cause-effect pattern phase outline narrative pattern preparation outline motivated sequence pattern speaking outline transitions delivery cues signposts oral citations
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