health ch. 4 lecture
health ch. 4 lecture Psy 383
Popular in Health Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mina Sezan on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 383 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. David Sbarra in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Ch. 4: Health Promoting Behaviors Exercise Aids in maintaining mental and physical health Aerobic exercises: Marked by high intensity, long duration, and the need for endurance Health Benefits of Regular Exercise Helps you control your weight Reduces your risk of cardiovascular disease Reduces your risk for Type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome Reduces your risk of some cancers Strengthens your bones and muscles Decreases resting heart rate and blood pressure and increases strength and efficiency of heart Improves sleep Increases HDL (good) cholesterol Improves immune system functioning Promotes the growth of neurons in the brain Effects of Regular Exercise on Psychological Health Improves mood and general well-being Improves sense of self-efficacy Improves cognitive functioning Has economic benefits Characteristics of People Who Exercises Come from families that practices exercise Have positive attitudes toward physical activity Have a strong sense of self-efficacy for exercising Energetic, extraverted and sociable Perceive themselves as athletic Have social support from friends Enjoy their form of exercise Have a sense of responsibility for their health Characteristics that Aid Exercise Convenient and easily accessible settings Less crowd Safe places Improved environmental options Social support Developing a regular exercise program Exercise Interventions Incorporate principles of self-control Increase motivation Increase and maintain physical activity Promote personal values Promote General lifestyle changes Family-based interventions- Help induce all family member to be more active Relapse prevention techniques-increase lone-term adherence to exercise programs Interventions involving multiple health behaviors- Work if health habits are linked to each other to address risk Home and Workplace Accidents Most common cause of death and disability among children under age 5 Precautionary measures to be adopted o Install safety catches and gates in the home o Place poisons out of reach o Teach children safety skills o Provide training and parenting classes to parents Fall-related accidents- Common cause of death and injuries in older adults Strategies to reduce accidents o Dietary and medication intervention o Physical activity training o Better lighting, nonslip bath mats, shower grab bars, and hand rails in homes o Fall prevention programs Motorcycle and Automobile Accident Greatest cause of accidental deaths Preventative measures o Social engineering solutions o Psychological interventions Cancer-Related Health Behaviors Mammograms- Have helped reduce breast cancer mortality o Important for older and high-risk women due to: Prevalence of breast cancer Its cost effectiveness Improved chances of survival if detected early o Usage declines with age due to: Fear of radiation o Embarrassment over the procedure o Anticipated pain o Anxiety o Fear of cancer o Concern over costs o Lack of awareness, times, and resource availability Measures to promote screening o Changing attitudes through interventions o Improving social support Mammography has helped reduce breast cancer mortality in the U.S. by nearly 1/3 since 1990. Yes, mammograms are safe The benefits of mammography outweigh any possible harm from the radiation exposure. Low radiation doses get breast x-rays that are high in image quality. To put dose into perspective, people in the US are normally exposed to radiation each year just from the natural surroundings. The dose of radiation used for a screening mammogram of both breasts is about the same amount of radiation a woman would get from her natural surroundings over about 7 weeks. (cancer-related health behaviors) Continued …. Colorectal cancer- second highest cause of cancerous deaths o Participation in screening is predicted by: Self-efficacy Perceived benefits Physicians’ recommendations Social norms favoring it Certain barriers Measure to promote screening o Community-based mass media programs o Community-based education o Interventions through social networks o Recommendations from health care providers o Reminder notices Skin cancer- Primary risk factor is excessive exposure to UV radiation o Measures to promote safe sun practices Educational interventions Teaching about effective sunscreen usage Developing a Healthy Diet Important as it is a controllable risk factor for many leading causes of death Dietary change o Critical for people at risk for or already diagnosed with chronic diseases o Improves health Reasons for Resistance to Modifying Diet Restrictive, monotonous, expensive, and hard to implement Requires changes in shopping, meal planning, cooking methods, and eating habits o Comfort foods are high in fat and sugars o Preferences for high-fat foods o Poor dietary habits Stress and Diet Stress has a direct and negative effect on diet Stressed people o Are distracted o May not have self-control o May not pay attention to their diet Controlling Diet Health diet requires: o Strong sense of self-efficacy o Knowledge about dietary issues o Family support o Perception that dietary change has important health benefits Interventions to Modify Diet Education and training in self-monitoring Cognitive-behavioral interventions Improving social support Motivational interviewing Training in self-regulation Adopting strong implementation intentions Family interventions Community interventions Cost-effective interventions Telephone counseling Social engineering Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) Sleep Stage 1 Lightest and earliest stage of sleep Marked by theta waves Stage 2 Breathing and heart rates even out Body temperature drops Brain waves alternate between sleep spindles and K-complex waves Stage 3 and 4 Deep sleep stage Marked by delta waves Importance of NREM Sleep Restores energy Strengthens the immune system Prompts the body to release growth hormone Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep Eyes move back and forth, breathing and heart rates vary, and dreams occur Marked by beta waves Important for: o Consolidating memories o Solving problems o Turning knowledge into long-term memories Sleep and Health Insufficient sleep affects: o Cognitive functioning o Mood o Job performance o Quality of life o Health Reasons for lack of sleep o Stress, high levels of hostility, or arousal o Usage of maladaptive coping strategies o Worrying about the causes of stress o Consuming alcohol Sleeping for long hours can result in psychopathology Rest, Renewal, Savoring Relaxation and renewal helps people: o Savor the positive aspects of life o Reduce stress o Restore emotional balance Participation in enjoyable activities o Lowers blood pressure, cortisol, and weight o Improves physical and cognitive functioning
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