health ch. 5
health ch. 5 Psy 383
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mina Sezan on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 383 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. David Sbarra in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Ch. 5 Health-Compromising Behaviors Characteristics of Health-Compromising Behaviors Habitual and addictive Window of vulnerability in adolescence Influenced by peer pressure Pleasurable and helps to cope with stress Develop gradually Have similar causative factors Lower socio-economic status effects behavior Obesity Excessive accumulation of body fat Risk o Contributes to: Death rates for all cancers and cardiovascular disease Atherosclerosis, hypertension, Type ll diabetes, and heart failure o Increases risks in surgery, anesthesia administration, and childbearing Major cause of disability Lowers the drive to exercise Difficulty performing basic tasks Poor cognitive functioning Associated with early mortality Can cause psychological, social, and economic stress Obesity in Childhood Causes o Genetics o Forceful feeding style o Sedentary lifestyle Depends on the number and size of an individual’s fat cells SES, Culture, and Obesity Factors that influence obesity o Social status and culture o Depression o High neuroticism, extraversion, and impulsivity o Social networks o Siblings and friends who are obese Dieting as Risk Factors for Obesity Yo-yo dieting: Successive cycles of dieting and weight gain o Enhances the efficiency of food use o Lowers metabolic rate Set point theory of weight: Each individual has an ideal biological weight, which cannot be greatly modified Stress Affects eating habits of different people in different ways Can disinhibit food consumption Stress eating: Practice of eating in response to stress o Tied to anxiety and depression Ways to Treat Obesity Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) o Screening o Self-monitoring o Stimulus control o Controlling eating o Self-reinforcement o Controlling self-talk o Adding exercise o Stress management o Social support o Relapse prevention Preventive Measure for Obesity Training parents on sensible meal-planning and eating habits Changing lifestyles at an young age School-based interventions Social engineering strategies Eating Disorders Developed due to the pursuit of thinness Highest disability and mortality rates of all behavioral disorders Lead to: o Depression and anxiety o Low self-esteem and a poor sense of mastery Anorexia Nervosa Obsessive disorder amounting to self-starvation o Body weight is well below optimum level Causes o Genetic factors- genes involving the serotonin, dopamine, and estrogen systems o Interactions between genetic and environmental factors o Dysregulated biological stress systems o Personality characteristics o Family interaction patterns Treating Anorexia Therapy o Cognitive-behavioral approaches o Family therapy Prevention o Addressing social norms o Addressing the health risks of eating disorders o Urging symptomatic individuals to accept treatments Bulimia Characterized by alternating cycles of binge eating and purging People with binge eating disorders are characterized by: o Excessive concern with body and weight o Preoccupation with dieting o History of depression, psychopathology, and alcohol or drug abuse o Difficulties with managing work and social settings Causes o Different stress responses o Higher cortisol levels o Large body mass o Depression and substance abuse o Genetics and hormonal dysfunctions o Family values o Low leptin functioning o Hypothalamic dysfunction o Food allergies o Disordered taste responsivity o Disordered of the endogenous opioid system o Neurological disorder Treating Bulimia Convincing bulimics about the seriousness of the disease Combination of medication and cognitive-behavioral therapy Using relapse prevention techniques Alcoholism and Problem Drinking Associated with: o High blood pressure o Stroke o Cirrhosis of the liver o Certain forms of cancer o Brain atrophy o Sleep disorders Leads to: o Economic loss o Social problems Substance Dependence Repeatedly self-administering substances Physical dependence: Body adjusts to substance and incorporates its use into normal functioning of the body’s tissues Tolerance: Body increasingly adapts to the use of substance Craving: Strong desire to engage in a behavior or consume a substance Addiction: Person becomes physically or psychologically dependent on a substance following repeated use over time Withdrawal: Unpleasant symptoms experienced by people when they stop using the dependent substance o Causes anxiety, irritability, intense cravings for the substance, nausea, headaches, tremors, and hallucinations Alcoholism and Problem Drinking Patterns of behaviors o Inability to cut down on drinking o Repeated efforts to control drinking o Binge drinking o Occasional consumption of large quantities o Loss of memory while intoxicated o Drinking despite health problems o Drinking of non-beverage alcohol o Physical addiction o Withdrawal symptoms o High tolerance for alcohol Causes: o Genetics o Socio demographic factors o Stress-financial and social o Low social support o Unemployment o Depression Treatment of Alcohol Abuse Cognitive-behavioral modification programs Providing employment opportunities and social support Treatment programs o Detoxification: Conducted in a carefully supervised and monitored medical setting for hard-core alcoholics Relapse prevention Evaluation of Alcohol Treatment Programs Factors associated with successful alcohol treatment programs o Environmental factors o Moderate length of participation o Involvement of family and employers Social engineering approaches are required to complement formal intervention efforts Inducing adolescents to not drink or to keep it under control Promoting social influence programs in schools o Enhances adolescents’ self-efficacy o Changes social norms o Low-cost option for low income areas Drinking and Driving Results in thousands of vehicular fatalities each year Can be controlled by: o Programs such as MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Driving) o Adopting self-regulatory techniques Smoking Single greatest cause of preventable death Increases the risk of many diseases and disorders Coworkers and family members of smokers are affected by secondhand smoke Synergistic Effects of Smoking Boosts the damaging effects of other risk factors Stress and smoking interact in dangerous ways o In men- increases heart rate reactivity to stress o In women- reduce heart rate but increase blood pressure as a response to stress Effects of Smoking Weight and smoking can interact to increase mortality Smoking and depression can interact to substantially increase the risk of cancer Related to anxiety in adolescence Factors Associated with Smoking in Adolescents Initial experimentation Peer pressure Interacting with other smokers Lack of discipline and monitoring in schools Familial attitude and influence Socio economic status Increase in stress Depression Mass media influence Low self-esteem Dependency Feelings of powerlessness Social isolation Why is Smoking So Hard to Change Associated with pleasurable activities Highly individualized Leads to short-term unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when stopped abruptly Elevates mood Keeps weight down Benefits of being abstinent is not known Ways to Reduce Smoking Changing attitudes toward smoking Therapeutic approach to the problem Nicotine replacement therapy Interventions Social support and stress management Interventions with adolescents Relapse prevention Evaluation of interventions Brief interventions Workplace interventions Commercial programs and self-help o Self-help aids: Encourages smokers to quit the habit Smoking Prevention Programs Catch potential smokers early and attack the underlying motivations that lead to smoking Implemented in schools o Emphasize the negative effects of smoking o Convey a positive image of the nonsmoker o Peer groups are used to foster non smoking
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