Introduction to Sociology
Popular in Introduction to Sociology
Popular in Department
verified elite notetaker
This 59 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Griffin on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Elon University taught by Dr. Arcaro in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.
Reviews for Introduction to Sociology
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/03/16
Black for lecture notes Green for blackboard discussion posts Blue for outside sources Red for personal reflection Megan Griffin Sociology Tuesday, February 4, 2013 What scientists do with data: Describe: what? Categorize fit with each other Analyze: why? Hard sciences versus social sciences Quantitative vs. qualitative Social sciences deal with ever changing events and facts Hard sciences focuses on “set-in-stone” facts (easier) Epistemology- the study of how “you know what you know” o Knowledge of the existence of God is different from knowing about the existence of the war in Syria Ontology- the study of the nature of existence of things; a desk and democracy (different ontological status) o Hard sciences like the desk o Social sciences like the democracy Axiology- study of values o Should there be a war in Syria? Arts: History, Literature, and Language Sciences: Sociology, Psychology Arts and sciences: broad based Expression: Acting, performing Training Categories are not discrete can blend into one another Why does sociology exist? Assumption that progress is inevitable Do we like the direction we are going in? Fact based/empirical based conversation about issues and ideas Thursday, February 6, 2013 Why do people do what they do? Why is society the way it is? Mirror neurons Neurons in your brain that fire when something is done, when a peanut was picked up by someone else, the neurons in the monkey’s brain go off and respond to the peanut being picked up o When you see someone gets hit or someone is crying o Why we have empathy physiological partial explanation o We are “wired” for empathy Evolutionary Sight Daniel Dennet-Philosopher at Tufts video Epistemology and ontology Human emotions were not dissimilar to other species Memes- An element of a culture or behavior that may be passed from one individual to another by nongenetic means, esp. imitation. o Mimetics- study of how memes get transferred o Values o Missionaries carry memes, and transfer them to a person with a poor cultural immune system Change their values very powerful Spreading ideas o Travel we are vectors of memes o Follow dictums of interaction Do no harm Process of evolution is substrate neutral o Change of genetic structure Memes are a part of culture and ideas are passed on momentously How one culture can destroy another culture with memes. Toxic memes o “Don’t want you hanging put with those kids” o Don’t want their kid to be “infected: Democracy in Iraq counterproductive (toxic meme) o Didn’t fit their culture Phenotype o Individual (gene plex) versus extended phenotype (meme plex) What drives us as a species Theoretical perspective The idea that if you went out to the parking lot and someone had you open up the hood of the car o You see “stuff” o A mechanic sees the specific parts something very different They have an array of concepts and idea that are organized in a coherent fashion to make sense of something Experts in a specific field and sees things differently (seeing stuff you don’t see) Don’t have the tool set to see the same things as the “experts” Functionalism- Belief in or stress on the practical application of a thing, in particular. o A society is a system, it has major parts that have functions There for a reason Look at it from the right perspective Everything is connected to something else Everyone has a role in society o What is it? And how does it connect with everything else? o Functionalism can lead us to weird conclusions o Functional analysis- look at something and figure out how it fits in, but also looking at the unintended, hidden concepts of something Cultural vestige- left over parts from earlier times/unnecessary/hard to explain o Halloween tradition o Tautological explanation: we do it because we do it o Like the appendix in the body (no function) Karl Marx Conflict theorists Communism Needed to understand capitalism wrote books about it Nothing in society makes sense except in the light of capitalism (Arcaro) o Versus Marx was the first one to talk about the economic system, how to determine the value of something o Intersection between supply curve and the man curve o Inevitable progress of capitalism is that “big fish will eat little fish” o If you stay the same size you will get smaller Everyone else is getting bigger He HAD to change external force causing that change o Extrinsic vs. Intrinsic rewards Neo-Marxist Marx looked at an algorithm o Capitalism is an algorithm Marx and Darwin are in the same area Social class conflict Nature of capitalism is biased toward extrinsic rewards Symbolic interactionism 1969 Looks at the construction of social reality How is meaning created? o Existentialism People respond to things in terms of the meaning o Response to an event in terms of the meaning that those things have for them o A personal sweatshirt means something different to the owner that it does to “outsiders” Meaning in not inherent in things, it is created o Ex. Silver crucifix cleaning fingernails Here and in the amazon Its meaning is ascribed to it by us and our understanding of the importance of it Someone from somewhere else does not understand that meaning o Something happens to a local figure half massed Emergent norms- ideas that you do all of the time o Road trip/inside jokes Someone from somewhere else does not understand that meaning Create a meaning with those people involved o How do I know that you know what something is? Universal object we are wired to fear snakes and spiders o Natural wiring o Front loaded into our brains o Extreme situations people are not inherently afraid of them All of these are complimentary and it is possible to use them together Ex. Conflict and symbolic can be connected Whoever has the gold has the rules o The meaning of gold o Some of us are more equal than others Social exchange theory Present or obligation? No such thing as a gift o Just ways of obligating ourselves to one another o Best place to “store” your thing that you don’t need at that moment is with others Do this intuitively Social capital o Given to people and when you need something you can pull in that social capital o “We owe each other” o A=B o A>C o B>C o A+c>B o B+C>A Want to be C because both A and B want you A divorce case, the child is C, parents are A and B An analogy from the text, to comprehend the idea of functionalism, helped me in understanding the concept, “All of these body parts work together to maintain an entire body, but it cannot be separated from other body parts that it affects and that in turn help its function” (Ferrante, 28). These body parts represent the many different elements of society that serve a purpose in maintaining that society (the bigger picture). All of the theoretical perspectives interested me, but I believe that functionalism is the most intriguing theory that represents how societies operate and survive. My intrigue with this theory developed from how accurate the perspective is and how it is easily comparable to something that most people can understand. In class we learned that “a society is a system, like the body, it has parts that have functions and are there for a reason, and every part is connected to something else” (Arcaro). Looking at the society through this perspective, especially as a student who’s major is partially focused on the human body, helped me to begin to understand how a society works. There seems to be flaws within the functionalism perspective, such as the concept of cultural vestige. We discussed this idea in class because someone mentioned the analogy comparing a society and it’s parts to the human body. He asked about the reason for the existence of body parts that don’t necessarily have a purpose and compared that to various elements of society. The response to this was, cultural vestige, “a surviving evidence or remainder of some condition, practice, etc.”(dictionary.com). To broaden our understanding of this concept, we were given the example of Halloween, there isn’t necessarily a purpose for this holiday, but “it is a tradition and we do it because we do it” (Arcaro). Although this idea may seem to be a flaw to some people, this idea contributed to my overall interest and curiosity about this concept. I didn’t necessarily see it as a flaw, because, if something does not have a purpose within society, sociologists and others still have an explanation for it’s existence, and that explanation is tradition. Both sociologists, Comte and Durkheim, developed the structural functionalism theory for a reason. Comte stressed the “need for cohesion after the social malaise of the French Revolution” (Princeton), and that is what the entire perspective focuses on. The fact that the perspective’s focal point is interconnection between everything in society instills confidence in my thinking that this is the best theory. I hope to understand this theory in even more depth and continue in my attempt to comprehend how all of the parts and functions in society are connected. In learning that, I believe it will become an easier task to try and understand my purpose in society and where I fit. Citations: Arcaro, Thomas. “Theoretical Perspectives.” Sociology 111 Class. Elon University Alamance, Elon, NC. 7 Feb. 2013. Lecture. Ferrante, Joan. Sociology: A Global Perspective. 7E. Belmont, CA: Wadswoth, 2008. Print. Princeton. Functionalism (sociology). n.p. n.d. 10 February 2013 "vestigial." Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition. HarperCollins Publishers. 10 Feb. 2013. <Dictionary.com> Tuesday 12 February 2013 Functionalism and conflict theory: why does Valentines Day exist Woven into the economic system along with other holidays o Interest to the system follow the money Ferrante bridges into racial/gender/ethnic conflict o Broad Marxist economic conflict generates all other conflict Symbolic interactionism How is meaning created? Who makes up the norms? o We do construct social reality great responsibility Gender is socially constructed How is reality created and how is it sustained? Social exchange theory Altruism does it exist? What is the point in the relationship between things? Evolutionary psychology Trying to understand people Lets consider if there are physical explanations for this o Ex. Men are taller than women o Can we explain this culturally? o Evolutionary or social? Evolutionary Exceptions don’t negate the fact the men are taller than women Why do people do the things they do? Empathy may not be totally cultural, part of our wiring o Exceptional circumstances that may not be explainable Functionalism Manifest (intended) functions and latent (unintended) functions Dysfunctions Holidays functions All cultures celebrate holidays o Must have something to do with keeping the whole system together Valentines day? o Morphed over the years o Religious to secular Expressive style to “let it out” o Fun and texture that life should have o Economic functions Different perspectives: o Consumers, Providers, Society’s functions o Perceptiveness Funeral o Societal: cant leave bodies around, taking care of something that has to be taken care of o Provider: money o Family: sense of closing Group work: a major global pharmaceutical pill came up with a longevity pill, if you took that pill right now, it would essentially plateau the aging process for 50 years Assess sociocultural impact, make a recommendation if it should be allowed or not on the market Religion, education, economic, government Unintended outcomes: Education: More time to be educated More schooling Harder to get a job Where would they all go? Education and economic: Schools would make more money because of more applicants o Could raise tuition More school supplies o Positive for the supply companies o Negative for the environment o Negative for the students who have to pay for the resources and tuition People would be smarter with longer schooling Not enough space or resources for people o Population constantly growing Religion: Development of more religions because of more ideas Pope lives will they all resign Will powerful figures work forever Less jobs because people would retain jobs much longer When would people retire Would there be more income in the family? Retirement when they take the pill o Volunteer work would rise? o Social security money would be used up Political: Would the presidency time extend along with the extension of life Would they be able to know more about the society Takes a toll on the world if people have the office for a long time alter the way of government Laws might change depending on what age you take the pill o Have to change rules for everything People: Mundane lifestyle o Get tired of what they are doing Family: Supporting each other Psychological issues o Benjamin Button o “Older than your mom” Expansion of families o Birth rates rise, death rates decrease Social confusion: Social groups are formed depending on who takes the pill If you stop aging does your mind stop developing along with your body and health o Could a 5 year old hold positions of power Economic: Would it be available to everyone? Or would it be only available to the richest o Crime rate would increase to try and get the pill Defines social classes Cancer treatments and other sicknesses would they be sick for that many years o More money into the economy, but hurts the individual o More demand for hospitals and doctors and supplies Cant put the information back in once discovered Similar to the nuclear bomb discovery Should we even research this Natural vs. human-made Developed countries vs. third world countries global perspective NO PILL!! Thinking sociologically Impacts on society Functionalist how it would impact each function o Everything is connected to everything else o One thing would impact every element Technological determinism- where technology and innovations drive the direction of society o Untold consequences Issues with free enterprise and the role of government in society This pill can happen.. o Nano technology incredibly powerful o Grey Goo? Face changes as a society, caused by technology innovation 14, February 2013 Data Nate Silver- statistician predicted every senatorial and presidential election, minus one o Started a blog about looking at data as a statistician o Incredibly accurate minute details o How? Looking at survey data Phone bank and others from all over the place How accurate are those? o In a survey: lying to the surveyor, lying to yourself capacity to fool oneself o Can be somewhat biased Sampling- identify population Random sample- everyone in the population has an equal chance in making it into the sample o Random number generator o Who is at the source of this and who wants to know it? Survey research is inherently biased Validity- is it actually accurate o Same answer two times in a row o Valid- if the answer is a hard fact, unlikely to be valid if a hard question to answer. E.g. how many hours do you study? o More likely to give a more valid answer if the surveyor is like you Age, race, gender Reliability- going to get it What is scientific survey? Social believer- Cultural believers, they say but don’t actually do o Common in the African American community in the South o Consequences if you don’t believe Social heterosexuals- cosmetic, social reasons they are “heterosexual” ALL HAVE TO DO WITH BIASES! Exploratory research- not throw away, essential stepping stone to more scientific research, when you cant generate a random sample because of social believers Which tool makes the most sense when it comes to methodological tools? o Right tool, right job Methodological tools: o Observation Laude Humphrey-same sex activity going on in public places, who are they? o Participant observer- “watch person” o Integrated into the T-room wrote down license plate umbers of participants Went door to door to the addresses of these people and gave them surveys about their lives Generalizability- can you generalize, infer, that info from one location is similar to or the same as other locations IRB-Laude Humphrey would have trouble with, put into place fairly recently, the institution of research board submit research to a committee o Ethical issues was it okay for him to do that? Ethics what comes out of it, is it worth the risk o Why do it? o First do no harm Media’s involvement in ethics o They can get away with being unethical Incentives and how it affects research o Give what they want thought process Milgrim experience o Willingness to listen to an authority figure o 4 different forms of the experiment Very extreme not too extreme o How close the authority was to the figure relate to the compliance How far would people go? o People are much more compliant to authority figures Become the role you are playing o Always playing roles o Role constitutes the self Free-will controversy What is the place for social science? o Don’t go to a social scientist It is historically known that decisions about political policy have been influenced by research in the hard sciences. An example, that is evident today, is the effort to decrease the amount of carbon dioxide released into the environment. The biological evidence of global warming led to the Kyoto Protocol (World Nuclear). Policy makers have been more hesitant to rely on evidence found by social scientists when creating policies and laws. For example, the issue concerning the Fair Housing Act of 1968 that focused on ending “discriminatory zoning practices” (Global sociology blog). This law’s purpose was to create integrated neighborhoods; initially it did not pass and the outcome was further acceptance of segregation. “Research has implicated residential segregation in virtually every aspect of racial inequality, from higher unemployment rates for African Americans, to poorer health care, to elevated infant mortality rates and, most of all, to inferior schools.” -Global Sociology Blog Fortunately, there has been more of a positive response in regard to relying on the social sciences to create policy. This growth is portrayed through University programs around the world, such as the Social Science and Policy PhD program at The University of South Whales (social sciences). I think successes regarding the social sciences derive from the fact that humans are not easily defined by hard sciences. Our actions, interactions, personalities and other aspects are not black and white; they are in the “grey area,” which is what many social scientists study and research. Since policy is a prominent factor in our lives that affects humanity’s ability to function, it should look at “grey area” (sociological) evidence. One specific example where social science evidence was useful was in the implementation of policies regarding the United States-Mexico border fences. One latent dysfunction of the border is the tearing apart of the family dynamic, one member of a family in Mexico usually crosses the border to find work leaving the rest of the family behind. Although this is sad sociological evidence, the positive functions (both manifest and latent) of the border outweighed the negative sociological effects of the border. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fc-Qi236W3A At times social evidence can be more effective in creating policy, but it is harder to attain evidence in the social science field than evidence in the hard-science field. How often the social sciences are used to make policy comes down to the importance and the ethics of the research and/or experiments. Due to the high cost of researching an entire population, social scientists have to look at a random sample. Random samples can often be unreliable because of the existence of biases such as “cultural believers, who say they don’t but actually do. (Arcaro)” and the question of generalizability, which is “the extent to which findings can be applied to the larger population from which a sample is drawn. (Ferrante, 51)” Both of these factors make it difficult to trust the validity and reliability of sociological evidence (Arcaro), which leads to apprehension when relying on this kind of evidence Arcaro, Thomas. “Theoretical Perspectives.” Introduction to Sociology. North Carolina, Elon. 14 Feb 2013. Lecture. Ferrante, Joan. Sociology: A Global Perspective. 7th ed. Belmont: Thomson Learning, 2008. 28-31. Print. "Migrant Families Divided at Mexican Border." YouTube. YouTube, 20 Aug. 2011. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. "Policy Responses to Climate Change." Policy Responses to Global Warming. World Nuclear Association, June 2011. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. "The Global Sociology Blog." Segregation Now, Segregation Tomorrow. The Global Sociology Blog by SocProf, 28 Oct. 2012. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. "Social Science and Policy." Social Science and Policy. University of New South Whales, n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. 19 February 2013 Do social sciences aid in making political decisions? Deeper trust in the hard sciences than we do in the social sciences Look at the surveyed data a huge percentage of people in the US believe in Creationism o Hard sciences say differently o Contradicts the hard sciences o A dominant narrative Social sciences and hard sciences are either good stuff or not good stuff o Cant be both Example: controversy with climate change, remains a controversial issue politically o Why is it accepted sometimes and not others Contradictory narratives o Same sex marriage social issue Citizens get multiple directions from different perspectives o World is so much more complicated Natural for people to “not care” Decisions based on tradition, non-scientific Marginalized social sciences We live in a culture that has contradiction o Science is good if it’s done right vs. we believe in things that don’t have scientific evidence o Mae decisions based on history other narratives Alcohol is an example Our culture is strange! Operational definition-concept (social classes, love) that you need to understand indicators, if it exists then you can measure it o Pick out the best indicators o Some indicators are more helpful than others o The transformation of an abstract, theoretical concept into something concrete, observable, and measurable in an empirical research project. If science is not cumulative it is useless o Compare different research Process of figuring out an operational definition o Figure out the indicators Data bank-Use of existing sources is amazing for social sciences o Analyze data that has already been collected o Ex. Facebook, Google Marketing reasons o Similar to what social scientists do o CDC-analyzes Google data for epidemiological research Don’t need to construct your own survey 21 February 2013 Speech: Humans act and then explain, instead of think and then act o Some examples people think and then act o Different from the typical day to day human interactions Fight or flight in traumatic interactions Biology and culture are different things o Reproductive fitness Standard social science model- we begin as blank slates and” someone” can “control you” o Get created by culture VS. Reproductive fitness to explain many of the actions of humans Culture and biology are interwoven o Both are equally as important o Is the height or width more important in the area of a rectangle Neither Nature and nurture interact Cultural determinism- contrasted with free-will, no real control of where you’re going and what youre doing o Technological, historical, linguistic o Cultural changes determine what you do o The individual has not control over the culture and it’s changes Cultural determinism is the belief that the culture in which we are raised determines who we are at emotional and behavioral levels. Birth date determines who you are (the historical context) o Artifact of historical determinism Linguistic: o Language isn’t a vehicle for communication, it constructs your reality Mechanism that transforms raw thought Express through words Different conceptual tools Ultimately construct a different reality More different the language is, the more different the social interactions are o Culture and language are woven together Collectively what people are thinking You are you because you speak a certain language Constructing a reality through learning other languages No free will? Doing the predictable “Cultural conveyor belt”-what you’re supposed to do o What has been given to you o Following a script People are constantly trying to create their own realities North Korea individuals have bullied a way of culture Sub-cultures- o Homogeneous North Korea, Iceland; everyone is the same Not many sub-cultures within o Heterogeneous United States; nation of immigrants Many sub-cultures American conceptualism- many cultures, but the United States is exceptional, we are different o Heterogeneity-ppl. From all over the world o Sub-cultures New York! Hyphenated American, but still follow elements of the dominant culture Counter culture-How people deal with certain elements of the domain culture, somewhat negative A counterculture (also written counter-culture) is a subculture whose values and norms of behavior deviate from those of mainstream society, often in opposition to mainstream cultural mores. Values (why) /norms (what) Norms have a behavioral aspect o Material o Behaviors o Not all the same some are more serious than others Values are things you cannot see Ex. Why do people wear shoes to class o Not material o Help explain behaviors o Harder to discern One end of the spectrum o Emotional response to going against a norm Can be a physical reaction Taboo awful reactions to certain actions Not the same in every culture Person is crazy On the other end o Folk ways –non-threatening behaviors Why do some norms change over time? o Ex. Smoking o What people did years ago is no acceptable today o Sex before marriage Normal now, not normal in the fifties Values have changed because norms have shifted o Goes in different directions o Ex. Dress at Elon formal vs. casual Cultures tend to move down to up o What used to be true isn’t necessarily true now Tuesday, February 26, 2013 Socialization We are all a function Self=f (A x B x C x D) o A- Unconscious past What is thought? Synaptic firings (neurons) Electro impulses Artificially causing thought to happen “Poke around the brain with electricity o Subject will have a memory that is very random Wouldn’t remember under normal circumstances Everything that has ever happened to a person, is theoretically always in there Memories- are they time stamped? o Web of connections between memories and other connections Memories can seem very real Repression-pushes things out of the pathway of memories we can recall Purposefully forget it because it is too painful to keep reliving Unconscious past- what you are right now is the whole combination of everything that has happened in the past Making “you you” Many thing that produce our actions Many are buried deep Things that happen when we are young Unable to process and articulate Express it nonverbally, not consciously expressed Forced to repression Unconscious mind-inability to consciously process events that affect an individual’s realization or repressed mind Brain doesn’t know when it necessarily happened, it could seem like it was yesterday Some events affect the consciousness more than others Who I am is a combination of many things including the unconscious past Consciousness is the tip of the ice berg, the subconscious is the larger part underneath the water Dreams How to interpret them The window between conscious and subconscious/ connection between the accessible and the inaccessible o The window becomes more permeable during sleep Dream analysts dreams mean something, try to unpack the symbolism o Capture some of what is in the subconscious mind Unit of analysis- micro v. macro level analyzing an entity Psychoanalysis- the individual is the normal study, should we study the entire culture with this Scholar (Fromm?) says “our culture is sick psychologically” o We are not sane o Individuals may seem healthy, but the culture is unhealthy Looking at Israel and Palestine o Growing up in a warzone o They are not healthy looking at them from a perspective of a Martian o B- Unconscious conflict Freudian terminology Id, ego, superego Id- the “devil,” all about me Superego-cultural norms, cultural values that are “poured into you” o Woven into who you are o We all have to agree to rules to make society work Means of adaptation o Nurture Ego-you, the conscious part Id struggling with ego George Herbert Mead I (utterly spontaneous, restricted in roles, but when you take off the roles you can be spontaneous) and the Me (social self- product of society, the roles that you play and that the are reciprocal, have a certain array of rights and responsibilities that go along with them) o What happens after you leave what you are doing in that moment play a different role o Free of this specific role, but have a different role Being human is going from one role to the next in normal situations Conflict between the I and Me o Cant do something because of the certain roles people have Part of us that is restricted, if we weren’t restricted we would be doing completely different things o Society would collapse, this is how society stays together o C- situational context You are capable of doing pretty much anything You will become a part of whatever social context you are in Become the role which is called upon by the situation Ex. Cannibalism in extreme situations o People are capable of doing extreme things Would you do the same thing being in the same situation? Situation can turn good people into bad people I am nothing more or less than the social context o Inner-directed- guided by one's own conscience and values rather than external pressures to conform o Other-directed- Directed or guided chiefly by external standards as opposed to one's own standards or values What number on the spectrum? o 6 o 5 years old-9 o 10 years old-8 o 15 years old-8 o Now-6 Situations demand you to be other/inner directed o Ex. Funerals (other) o In class we are other directed doing the same thing/ range of behavior is narrow o Area of gang violence Easiest and sometimes safest to do what everyone else s doing Functional other directedness o Situation where drugs are present “Beer goggles” Directedness changes o D- physiological status Your physical status ahs a lot to say about how you are going to behave Example: PMS Hormones affecting the brain o PMS does exist because of the hormonal changes Behavior and hormone levels change together Sleep deprivation affects behavior Heat of a room makes it hard to concentrate Hungry needs something, a nutrient, subconsciously goes into the brain Chocolate and alcohol affect on the body Sugar insulin is produced, metabolize sugars Temporarily you have a hormonal imbalance o Can it cause psychological changes? Sugar blues Physiologic status differs in people directs who you are ALL OF THESE MAKE UP WHOM WE ARE! o Some are more dominant than others in specific instances o Figuring out who you are Socialization- enculturation, on going process here the individual follows societal standards o Re-socialization- taken down to your bare bones and reconstructed, stripping of your old self o The process by which existing social roles are radically altered or replaced. Everyone is like everyone else What the “machine” wants you to be Purpose behind it Literal and metaphorical self is stripped away Ex. Jail, military camp Situational context act differently in jail or camp Brainwashing is a harsh term Cult Benign and non-benign ways Recreate yourself in college- start over Thursday, February 28, 2013 Agents of socialization- before birth you are being formed into what you are o Social forces creating the individual and their behavior o 1. Family- whoever brought you up, actively or passively watched them Constantly teaching you parts of the culture Culture is being poured into you Most important? o 2. Peers- the people you are around Inner-directed, other-directed Influencing how you act Content of personality behavior o 3. Religion Religious practices Major institution Part of what makes you who you are o 4. Media Advertising Media is everywhere o Education Broad spectrum Teachers Coaches Counselors A rank order of what made you you: Family Friends Education Media Religion One for mom: Friends Family Education Media Religion One for dad: Family Education Friends Religion Media One for child: Family Friends Education Religion Media 100 years ago religion would have been listed second, while now media has taken one of the top spots Do demographics matter? o Yes! o Impacts it in many ways Religion- o Secularization- religion is becoming less a part of culture In the past there was one main religion hunter/gathering time Now it is more diverse Agents of socialization have gotten more numerous and diverse as time has gone on Religion used to be the center of American culture Islamic religion now Why? Functional alternative- if this one institution is becoming more marginalized Functions of religion are being taken up by other alternatives of culture o To fulfill needs of religion “Putting in an artificial heart” Primary group- we all belong to one primary group o People you bond with o Affectively expressive o Intimate details, a place where you can be your full self Secondary group-less intimate o Instrumental in nature o I give to you, you give to me o Bank: teller and customer o Means to an end o Class time Areas in between Much more secondary now compared to 100 years ago o More strangers o “Small town” feel Sane society- are we becoming more insane? o An object in secondary relationships, primary: can be you o How you feel about yourself how you are mentally o Modern society highly functioning but less close to ourselves Stars- positive identification, caused them to do better academically o Better performance o Teachers treated them differently More personalized attention How a teacher feels about you can /does influence your treatment o Looking-glass self- “I look at you, imagine what you are seeing when you see me, anticipate what you are evaluating when you see me, self-image from that impression” o Conspicuous consumption- confidence because of material goods Telling the world who you are! The value you have/your income “People will think better of me” Socialization disadvantage- any pattern, underlying bias, gender, race, social status, education level o Possible that we expect different things from different groups o Subconscious/conscious Teacher and student are unaware of the bias o Tracking- putting the “dumb kids with the dumb kids”… Homogeneous class Self-fulfilling prophecy looking glass self What you are told affects the way you act Tooth decay o More cavities now because we are eating different foods now o Toothbrush design has recently not been changing with our changing diet Design is good, what is happening to the design is bad Data we take in today is so different from how much data was taken in years ago o Is it possible that the design of our brain hasn’t been able to adapt to our changing society o Bonds being strained more and more Modern society is throwing stuff at us that is harder to absorb Mental difficulty? Agents of socialization mixture of messages/contradictory/complex o Tearing in different directions Sociocultural evolution We have been alive for years We were the last hominids to survive either killed out or breeded out the other species Hunter-gathering societies o Nomadic o Small groups o Little differentiation males do the same things, females do the same things Homogeneous o Sharing surplus surplus return Horticultural o Semi-nomadic o Population size is bigger o Less egalitarian o No big gap between the rich and poor Pastoralist o Follow around large animals E.g. buffalo Make their living by following these animals Agricultural society o Domestication of plants and animals How to take animals and make them more docile Coevolution between animals and humans through selective breeding and domestication o Domestication of grains: maize, rice Development of culture and society from simple to complex forms o Before surplus there was no rich and poor o Large poor population, small population of rich o Those who were deemed to be gods and then the rest of the population New social arrangements, stratification Modification on agriculture: industrialization o Stratification differences Post-industrial society o Primary-directly with natural resources, fishing, making a living directly with the land (1%-PI, 95%-HG) o Secondary-transforming natural resources and turning them into products (4%-PI and HG) o Tertiary-providing a service, doctors lawyers (95%-PI, 1% HG) Colonization- want to keep the culture functioning for own personal reasons o Take over religion or political system replace with your leadership o Colonization occurs whenever any one or more species populate an area. Kleptocrasy- focusing on staying in power for one’s own benefit, not for the people o Government by those who seek chiefly status and personal gain at the expense of the governed Metaphorically break a culture o Replace specific parts, is it possible to change it into a dysfunctional entity o We have many cultures that are broken Cant go back to the old way, but going forward is a slow and painful process of reconstructing/starting again Culture has to heal itself, humanitarian work can temporarily fix problems in other countries, “ put a band aid on” Kabul Skype: Natasha Christenson Women’s rights- District governor is a woman, progress is being made between the gaps of genders, female Air Force pilots treated differently than the men pilots Western narrative that all Islamic nations oppress women, but not as much as we believe There is progress Censorship- journalists are in danger for the work that they do Wont shut down YouTube as often as some other countries, but being in the media can bring attention to you and put you in danger Human terrain team- sociologists in the Army, how to merge themselves into problematic areas o Looking at specific issues Children- She has interacted with the ministry outreach staff Only interaction with children was through a non-profit connected with the hospital Perspective is different because at the hospital everyone is injured or sick Seeing the children caught up in various injuries o Way more to be done to protect children and make their lives better Gets ordered to do her jobs Surveys and see what you find Afghanistan doesn’t want to be like the US, wants to maintain what Afghanistan is Attaining stability takes a long time Putting a timestamp on progressiveness is impossible Ethnocentrism Afghanistan wants to be like the US o Lack of vision Afghanis have the same values as we do o Human desire, not a nationality desire Gender roles All of her jobs were/are in male dominated areas of work A women doing certain jobs in not “normal” In the US gender roles are evolving o Afghanistan women are involved in so many new ways, but there is still an awareness of traditional gender roles that they should be occupying Be traditional and modern Personal evolution Extended her stay in Afghanistan Understanding of being in a role for others, not just oneself Life changing stories and experiences Stories have changed her the most She has a mission it is her personal choice o Why? She’d rather “feel” it, she is more personally engaged at an operation level “Comfort zones make us complacent and stupid” Face to face with people to really understand them, this is what being a global citizen is all about Meet with people, listen to them gain so much more perspective Treat the time at Elon as the longest job interview you’ve ever had Social exchange theory-what is she getting out of this? Using her abilities to make the world a better place She has no illusions that everything will be perfect in Afghanistan anytime soon We have been fed a narrative from the media that we are making things better No such thing as Afghanistan artifact of the outside saying that is what they are All the tribal areas The dramaturgical model is, “a model in which social interaction is viewed as if it were theater, people as if they were actors, and roles as if they were performances before an audience in a particular setting” (Ferrante, 506). With this approach in mind, gender roles seem inescapable. Looking at gender roles from a dramaturgical approach relates to how the media, mainly in the past, depicted gender roles. “Ads tell us that there is a big distinction between appropriate behavior for men or boys and that for women and girls” (Cortese, 13). Media is an influential form of propaganda and has been for many years, but now “media is listed second (after family) as one of the most influential social forces in people’s lives today” (Arcaro). The development of the media in the United States has fortunately advanced in a way that disproves the monolithic way of thinking about the roles of women. The advancement women in the United States have made in escaping the gender roles that were established in the past is incredible. Then AND Now http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l51rxnKJRfk Natasha Christensen is a perfect example of a woman who is disproving stereotypes. She is also proving that it is possible to strive for gender equality within countries that are known for their brutality towards women. When talking to Natasha, she said “all of her jobs were/are in male dominated areas of work” (Christensen). She is able to look past gender roles and do what she is passionate about, despite the masculine attitude toward her occupation. She recognized that in the “United States gender roles are evolving” (Christensen), just like the media depicts, but in other countries such as Afghanistan (where she is stationed), progress is moving more slowly. Although progress is being made in diminishing gender roles, women in countries like Afghanistan and Namibia have many difficulties in their lives because of the influential presence of gender roles. These difficulties are portrayed through the existence of HIV/AIDS in Namibia and the difference in how it affects women and men. Many women with HIV in Namibia, unfortunately, are punished and emotionally exiled by their community for being infected. The stigma of having the disease affects women in a harsher way because many of the times women are infected in a way that it out of their control. The stigma that goes along with having the disease causes many women and their children to be negatively affected by impression management. Many times women refuse to seek out help because they are embarrassed. Similarly, many children in the documentary refused to admit that their mother died of HIV/AIDS because of the stigma connected with the disease. Both Lucy Steinitz and Anita Isaacs are examples of women who are striving to decrease the stigma that is placed on, specifically, women with HIV/AIDS. They both have personally made the effort to abolish gender roles and it’s affect on women with HIV/AIDS in attempt to empower women all around the country. Arcaro, Thomas. “Theoretical Perspectives.” Introduction to Sociology. Elon, North Carolina. March. 2013. Christensen, Natasha. “Theoretical Perspectives.” Introduction to Sociology. Elon, North Carolina. March. 2013. Cortese, Anthony. Provacateur: Images of women and minorities in advertising. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. 2008. Print Ferrante, Joan. Sociology: A Global Perspective. Belmont, CA: Wadswoth, 2008. Print. March 7, 2013 Monolithic thinking: everyone has, and social/cultural generalization HIV/AIDS o Numbers are high, but there is some indication the numbers are plateauing off o People are still infected/affected o Three part system HIV malaria tuberculosis Africa, specifically Southern Africa People dying of all three are connected o HIV/AIDS makes people sensitive to retracting the other diseases HIV affects those who are vital to the economy unlike other diseases which infect older and younger people o Trying to run a country where at any moment a quarter of the country is infected and could die HIV has caused Namibia to be a very unstable country Catholic AIDS action o Ironic o Discussing how to avoid HIV o Catholic policies condoms Catholic officials couldn’t talk about it, but the reality is that they need to distribute condoms Having condoms available is only part of the solution o People need to use them o Women negotiating the use is very difficult The desire to get tested is very slim because they have nothing to do about it o “Once I know, I know I will die” o Females especially don’t want to get tested because the men punish them for being infected Antivirals need to be available for everyone to encourage people to get tested Americans don’t really have to worry about being infected by HIV versus how much people in Africa have to worry about it Men are more likely to give the disease o Women under 15 who are raped, the chance of receiving HIV is extremely high o Not a gender-neutral disease at all! Mother to child transmission o 50/50 risk of having HIV when they are born o There is a drug that can lower the transmission rate from mothers to children Antivirals o People who are receiving it have to go to the clinic once a month Difficult for people in rural areas to get to the clinic Extremely expensive/money people don’t have Logistical problems HIV positive people can be asymptomatic for a long time o Not realize they have the disease and they pass it Stigma- devalued social status o Keep it quiet o Taboo o Two kinds Like HIV (easier to hide) Sexuality, choose to keep hidden Criminal past Mental Illnesses If you are an amputee (hard to hide that) Race o Impression management- manage how many people know about it and how they find out Affective telling- Telling a partner, own emotional need/ opening oneself up for personal reasons Primary Want to know Instrumental telling- Doctors/Dentists if they come in contact with blood they have to take precautions Responsible for the common/ attribute wishing to cover up Secondary Need to know Telling teammates would be both affective and instrumental Tuesday February 12, 2013 Question: What happens when bureaucracy get bigger? How does it affect things when they get bigger? Social organization, if we go back in time, things were different No bureaucracy, a time before complex organizations Bureaucratization more bureaucracies o Cant function at all without being involved in a whole array of them Examples: Social security, Elon number, insurance o Life is impacted on so many levels o Some are more intangible auto insurance Impersonal Increasing exponentially As a social force, bureaucracies are a large factor in how we are determining our lives Are bureaucracies inevitable? Elon is a bureaucracy o Too difficult/painful to come to consensus about things Much easier with a small number Demanded to make decisions in a hierarchal way o Cant have a ton of people come to consensus Wouldn’t be able to function Bureaucratization will impact the world o We have no alternative o Governments, organizations will become bureaucracies it is inevitable o Weber Iron cage of rationality o Not being able to make that which is real, measurable, bureaucracies tend to make which is real measurable o Trick of grading, SAT scores, college acceptance o We make something abstract, real o A problem that has to be dealt with o “where the light is best” Ordinal to a set measurable decision o Everything has to be quantified the necessity of this is inevitable Bureaucratization quantification depersonalization o No subjectivity, something that is a legitimate basis General trend at the beginning of the 20 century and on Constant struggle of the necessity of quantification and being rational o Trying to be efficient ideal type o Rationality and efficiency Ways of measuring everything The reward system and higher education o “To get the best teacher of the department award was like getting the kiss of death.” Primary committee looks at the stronger candidate that they think will pass the school committee Cant put up the one who has 3 strong articles vs. 12 okay articles School committee looks at numbers Forced into the iron cage of rationality What happens when bureaucracies get bigger? Depersonalization alienation occurs o Alienation from the world Ragoo syndrome Store bought sauce vs. home made sauce o Store bought because of time How much do you possess and ho much do you own? Possess anyone could have bought that Own something that you made, less ownership now that bureaucratization has become so extreme Not as connected to the world with the Ragoo sauce o Alienation from the material world leads to alienation from oneself Everything is handed to you, don’t get to know yourself Modern society alienation is going up and up Small- alienation is low Medium-alienation is higher Large-very high Economy of scale-base cost determines the consumer cost o Buying materials in bulk smaller consumer cost o The more you make, the less it will cost you o Small bureaucracy is inefficient and efficient Cost of materials Overhead costs for people in various occupations can be within one person o Bigger bureaucracies are less efficient Leo Lambert has people under him (bureaucratic layers) because Elon is growing Don’t make decisions by themselves o As a bureaucracy gets bigger there is ore dependence on experts Depend on them to make decisions o More layers of communication (levels of bureaucracy) causes miscommunication o Less access to leaders The bigger a bureaucracy gets, the harder it is to change Were doomed to having bureaucracies inefficiently “taking over” o Need structure though, cant get rid of government Multinational organizations o Mission statements separate bureaucracies from others o Multinational org. maximize profit o Governmental vs. entrepreneurial Wealth and decisions that affect a large number of people is “taking over” Important entities o Example; Apple as a corporate entity could buy and sell Namibia without hurting them at all Bigger economically than companies around the world Environmental stewardship clashes with their need for profit o Multinational globalization through economic expansion Technological growth o If we make technological mistakes, it is a huge issue We need to understand bureaucracies because we are meshed within them How do you measure globalization? o According to the iron cage, it should be measurable o IT exists! It is hard to measure though Laws: o Criminal o Regulatory o Civil Choosing the new Pope What language do they use to communicate? How is that fair/how do you decide that? Example of a major bureaucracy dealing with issues People tend to look for tangibility in any situation. Officials tend to overlook crimes that are intangible when punishing people. Although people have tried to make the intangible tangible, the ability to easily define and understand small c crime has caused executives to somewhat ignore corporate crime and pay attention to those crimes that are committed by individuals. “Public and political preoccupation with violent offenses” (Burgess) has caused corporate crimes to fall under the radar. Corporate crimes are intangible for a variety of reasons, but the most difficult aspect law officials and government agencies have to deal with when trying to punish those who committed corporate crime is the “diffusion of responsibility” (Arcaro). Corporate crime is defined as “crime committed by a corporation as it competes with other companies for market share and profits” (Ferrante, 181). When a corporate crime is committed a number of people are responsible for it, compared to an individual being responsible for small c crimes. Ferrante describes people who are involved in committing corporate crime as “part of the system: They occupy positions in the organization that permit them to carry out illegal activities discreetly” (Ferrante 182). This makes punishing people for a corporate crime very difficult and even more difficult to put someone in jail. The diffusion of responsibility also limits the guilt that is felt by those who commit it. There is a sense of moral ambiguity connected with corporate crime due to the dispersal of responsibility. Corporate crime is