health ch. 6 lecture notes
health ch. 6 lecture notes Psy 383
Popular in Health Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mina Sezan on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 383 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. David Sbarra in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Ch. 6 Stress Stress Negative emotional experience accompanied by predictable biochemical, physiological, cognitive, and behavioral changes o Aimed at altering the stressful event or accommodating to its effects Stressors: Events that cause stress Appraisal of Stressors Primary appraisal o Understanding what an event is and what it will mean o Events are appraised for their harm, threat, or challenge Secondary appraisal o Assessing whether personal resources are sufficient to meet the demands of the environment Person-environment fit o Results from the process of appraising events, assessing potential resources, and responding to the events Fight-or-Flight Response Body is aroused and motivated via the sympathetic nervous system and endocrine system when a threat is perceived o Result- Mobilizes an organism to attack the threat or to flee Advantage- adaptive Disadvantage- can be harmful Criticisms of General Adaptation Syndrome Assigns a limited role to psychological factors Not all stressors produce the same endocrinological responses Continued activation accumulates the most damage to physiological systems Fails to address the debilitating effects of stress Tend-and-Befriend In addition to fight or flight, people and animals respond to stress with: o Social affiliation o Nurturant behavior toward offspring Oxytocin is released during stressful events o Acts as an impetus for affiliation Sympathetic Activation Sympathetic nervous system arousal o Stimulates the medulla of the adrenal glands o Adrenal glands secrete the catecholamine epinephrine (EP) and norepinephrine (NE) Parasympathetic functioning- Becomes dysregulated in response to stress o Affects heart rate variability Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical (HPA) Activation Hypothalamus releases corticotrophin- releasing hormone (CRH) o Stimulates secreting of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Stimulates the release of glucocorticoids Repeated activation of the HPA axis will compromise its functioning Effects of Long-Term Stress Suppression of cellular immune function Increased blood pressure and heart rate Psychiatric disorders Development of atherosclerosis Problems with verbal functioning, memory, and concentration Storage of fat in central visceral areas Reactivity and Allostatic Load Reactivity: Degree of change that occurs in autonomic, neuroendocrine, and/or immune responses as a result of stress Allostatic load: Physiological costs of chronic exposure to the physiological changes from repeated or chronic stress Indicators of Allostatic Load Decreases in cell-mediated immunity The inability to shut off cortisol in response to stress Lowered heart rate variability Elevated epinephrine levels A high waist-to-hip ration (reflecting abdominal fat) Hippocampal volume (which can decrease with repeated stimulation of the HPA) Problem with memory (an indirect measure of hippocampal functioning) High plasma fibrinogen Elevated blood pressure Dimensions of Stressful Events Negative events Uncontrollable events Ambiguous events Overload Central life domains Adapting to Stress Chronic strain: Develops when a stressful event becomes a permanent or chronic part of the environment Depends on: o Type of stressor o Subjective experience of stress o Indicator of stress Relationship between Stressor and Stress Anticipating stress- Anticipation is as stressful as the actual event Aftereffect of stress: Persist long after the stressful event itself is no longer present o Shortened attention span o Poor performance on tasks o Ongoing psychological distress o Physiological arousal Acute Stress Paradigm People performing stressful tasks become psychologically distressed and show physiological arousal Identifies individuals most vulnerable to stress Shows that stress responses can be reduced with the presence of a partner or a stranger Inducing Disease Intentionally exposing people to viruses and assessing whether they get ill and the intensity of illness People experiencing more stress are more likely to get sick and mount a stronger immune response Drawbacks of the Social Readjustment Some items on the life event list are vague Individual differences are not considered Does not assess whether stressful events have been successfully resolved Time between stress and illness do not correlate Daily Stress Daily hassles: minor stressful events that lead to: o Psychological distress o Adverse physiological changes o Physical symptoms o Use of health care services Effects of Early Stressful Life Experiences Low socioeconomic status Exposure to violence Living in poverty-stricken neighborhoods Community level stressors Children who grow up in risky families: o Have problems with emotion regulation and social skills o Have difficulty forming good social relationships o Can develop heightened sympathetic reactivity to stress, exaggerated cortisol responses, or chronic inflammation Chronic Stressful Conditions Long-term and grinding Contributes to psychological distress and physical illness Research relating chronic stress to health outcomes is difficult to conduct Studies on Workplace Stress Identify the most common stressors of everyday life Provide evidence for the stress-illness relationship Provide possibilities for intervention Important as stress-related disorders lead to disability and social security payments to workers Causes of Workplace Stress Work and sedentary lifestyle Work overload Ambiguity and role conflict o Role conflict: Occurs when a person receives conflicting information about work Inability to develop satisfying social relationships at work Lack of control over one’s work life o Demand-control-support model: High demands and low control, combined with little social support at work Unemployment Outcomes of Work-Related Stress Higher rates of absenteeism Job turnover Tardiness Job dissatisfaction Sabotage Poor performance on the job Reducing Stress at Work Minimize physical works stressors Minimize unpredictability and ambiguity Involve workers in decisions that affect their work Make jobs interesting Help workers to develop meaningful social relationship at work Reward workers for good work Look for signs of stress Add workplace perks that enhance quality of life Women and Multiple Roles Conflicting home and work responsibilities increase stress Working women who have children have: o Higher levels of cortisol o Higher cardiovascular reactivity o More home strain Single women raising children on their own are most at risk for health problems Second Shift Second shift is a term used to describe the workload of people who work to earn money, but who are also responsible for significant amounts of unpaid domestic labor. This phenomenon is in Arlie Hochschild’s book of the same name. In heterosexual couples where both partners have paid jobs, women often spend significantly more time than men on household chores and caring work, such as childrearing or caring for sick family members. This outcome is determined in large part by traditional gender roles that have been accepted by society over time. Positive Effects of Multiple Roles Combination of motherhood and employment o Is beneficial for health and well-being o Improves self-esteem o Improves feelings of self-efficacy, and life satisfaction Less stressful situations o Control and flexibility over one’s work environment o Good income o Domestic help and adequate childcare o Supportive, helpful partner Men and Multiple Roles Distressed by financial strain and work stress Combining employment and marriage is protective for men’s health Stressful interpersonal events at work can increase conflicts with children Employed, unmarried fathers are more vulnerable to psychological distress Stress for Children Social and academic failure experiences at school increases a child’s aversive behavior at home Children are affected by their parents’ work and family stressors Affects academic achievement and leads to acting out in adolescence