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Lecture and Discussion Notes

by: Brigette Notetaker

Lecture and Discussion Notes PSY 1

Brigette Notetaker
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About this Document

Notes taken from attended lectures and discussions
A. Fridlund
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology, Psychology, key terms





Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brigette Notetaker on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by A. Fridlund in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY in Psychology (PSYC) at University of California Santa Barbara.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
Wilhelm von Osten and His Horse “Clever Hans” ● Wilhelm shows a card with a problem with it ○ Wilhelm does not know what’s on the card­ Horse gets about 6  percent of it right ○ Wilhelm knows what's on the card­ horse gets most answers right People with autism ● Avoids contact with others ● They are intelligent, but are unable to express it ● They are trapped in a prison of silence ● They have spectacular abilities in narrow areas ○ Ex. man knows which day lands on a specific date.  ○ Can play a tune on a piano after hearing it once ○ Facilitator communication­ lead to false allegations toward Betsy’s family [claimed that Betsy was sexually harassed by her family] ■ Betsy can only see what her facilitator sees/she  can only put something in context when her facilitator knows the  information ○ People with autism amplifies the small things that facilitators do  from subconscious Brain “Localization” ● The brain has numerous parts, interconnected by circular pathways ● Is there “localization of function”? ○ Strict localization view ○ “Mass action” view ○ Resolution: Specialization but not strict localization Mass action people­ you can chop out big portions of the brain but the humans/people can still  do everything. However, they won’t complete the tasks as well.  Strict localization view­ Each act/knowledge/skill is associated with a certain part of the brain. If  that part of the brain is removed, the act/knowledge/skill is also removed Belief­ If you had a specific skill that you excelled in, the part of the brain that performs that  function would be larger than the rest of the parts of the brain ­Brain localization: Neurosurgical Mapping (1850­1980)­ He would stimulate different parts of  the brain and observe their reactions and experiences Electroencephalogram (EEG) ● picks up the micro potentials of the neurons right on top of the brain Modern Localization: Neuroimaging (1980­present) ● The more oxygen there is, the better the brain can function ● Sensory strip­ can be seen activated when moving certain parts of the body Spontaneous Brain Activity ● An attempt to recite the ABC'S backwards, all parts of the brain are activated.  The MRI appears as a weather forecast in fast­forward Instructor’s Head­ Electron Brain Tomography (EBT) Scanning ● Big holes in the front of the head­ sinuses­ usually filled with air Modern Neuroimaging ● Magnetic Resonance Imaging­ MRI  ● Functional MRI­ Diffusion Tensor Imaging ○ We understand the function of the brain while opening fewer skulls Major Brain Segments­ Neurogenesis ● Forebrain ● Midbrain ● Hindbrain­ most difficult part to perform surgery on because it’s so compact and it assits in the functions that are most important in our body ○ Cerebellum “Little brain” ○ Medulla­ “heart” ■ Underneath the pons ○ Pons­ “bridge”  ■ Left side of the brain controls right side of the body  and vice versa ● Spinal Cord ○ Descends from head to tail Human Brain Development ● 25 days after conception­ there is a worm­like tube that grows first ● 35 days, you get some thickening ­ the forebrain and hindbrain thickens, but the  midbrain trails ● 50 days post conception­ the forebrain and hindbrain swells, while the midbrain  remains a runt ○ Bird midbrains are large ● Between 4­5 months, self­stimulating  ● The midbrain is obscured by territorial emperiest forebrain  ● The forebrain eventually becomes the largest part of the brain ● Hindbrain is the second most developed part in the brain­ connected to the spinal cord em∙pir∙i∙cism əmˈpirəˌsizəm/ noun PHILOSOPHY 1. the theory that all knowledge is derived from sense­experience. Stimulated by  the rise of experimental science, it developed in the 17th and 18th centuries, expounded  in particular by John Locke, George Berkeley, and David Hume. ● Common hindbrain reflexes­ gagging, coughing ○ Quickest of our reflexes ● Hindbrain reflexes­ infant reflexes ● Babinski reflex­ see it in infants, disappears in adults ○ Stroking a pen down the sole of the foot­ the toes will spread and  curl  ○ We get this reflex back if we have neurological complications­ the  reflex may be reactivated ● Infants have terrible eyesight, so they have the reflex to suck on their thumbs,  thus assisting them in identifying the nipple  ● Rooting and Moro Reflex ○ The moro reflex causes the baby to reach up if you slightly tilt  them Brain injuries will cause infant reflexes to reappear, so therapy helps to suppress them again ● Pons and Medulla  ○ Protective reflexes ○ Infant (“pathological”) reflexes ○ Cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive reflexes ● Cerebellum ○ “Old” (inner) cerebellum­ balance (linked to semicircular canals of  ears and trochlear nerves that moves the eyeballs); damage causes “cerebellar  ataxia”  ○ “New” (outer) cerebellum­ rapid automatic movements, timing of  movements and thoughts Fields Within Psychology ● Biological Psychology ● Psychophysics (Sensation and Perception) ● Animal Experimental Psychology (Learning and Behavior) ● Quantitative (Math) Psychology ● Developmental Psychology ● Evolutionary Psychology ● Social Psychology ● Cognitive Psychology ● Neuropsychology ● Personality Psychology ● Clinical & Counseling Psychology ● School Psychology ● Industrial / Organizational Psychology ● Consumer Psychology (List Descends from Experimental (“Hard”) ­> Applied (“Soft”) Is the Brain Also the Mind?  ● Monism­ physical and mental are one ○ Idealism­ all is thought ○ Materialism­ all is physical ● Dualism­ physical and mental are different aspects of reality ○ Interactionism­ theoretical perspective that derives social  processes (such as conflict, cooperation, identity formation) from human  interaction. It is the study of how individuals act within society ○ Psychophysical Parallelism­ Philosophical theory that mental and  bodily events occur together, without any causal interaction between them “Brain in a Vat” Problem ● Classic demonstration of the mind­body issue ● Where does the sense of self come from? Who Has Big Brains? ● Weighs about 1400 g (about 3 lb) in avg. adult.  ● Taller people have bigger, heavier brains ● Males have bigger brains than females ● Across animal kingdom, brain size and weight are unrelated to intelligence ● Within humans, brain size and weight are weakly related to intelligence ● We think more brain cells give you a reserve for dementia later on ● Smaller brains will likely have later dementia ● As an infant, skull circumference may indicate future IQ­ less prone to  depression, anxiety disorder, etc., ● Humans have the heaviest brain per pound of body weight How Do We Study the Brain? ● Humans Only ○ Clinical (patient) studies ● Humans and Nonhumans  ○ Experimental Studies ■ Invasive ■ Non­invasive (Neuroimaging) Clinical Studies ● Neuropathologies ○ Tumors, infections, degenerative diseases ○ Cerebrovascular accidents (CVA’s, “strokes”) ■ Thrombotic / embolic strokes ■ Hemorrhagic strokes ■ Ruptured aneurysms ○ Traumatic brain injury ■ Penetrative wounds ■ Concussions ● During neurosurgery under local anesthesia ● Neuropsychological testing Signs of Stroke ● Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg, especially on one side  Concussion (“To shake violently”) ● Occur from impacts, shaking, or twisting of head, which can result in bruising of  brain and shredding of nerves and blood vessels.  ● Small concussions accumulate damage: Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy  (CTE) ● Signs may include temporary :OC (­10% of cases), headache, “fogginess”,  emotional lability, amnesia, irritability, slowness, and sleep problems ● Immediate effects usually remit in 2­3 week, but accumulated damage may  present as later deterioration ● CTE produces a unique type of destruction to brain tissue:; one study of 131  football players at HS, college and Natl. Football League levels found evidence of CTE  in 79%, and 91% among just the NFL’ers ● In 2015, the NFL reached $1 billion settlement with retired players who claim the  League knew, but hid, the dangers of concussion


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