Political_and_Economic_System_Book_Notes_Pages_357__375.pdf SOC 2110
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by rayparkerjr on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 2110 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Richard Caston in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology 101 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Political and Economic System Book Notes Pages 357-375 (: Politics- is the process by which power is distributed and decision are made. Politics, Power and Authority. Power: o Weber, referred to power as, ability to carry out ones person or grps will, even in the presence of resistance or opposition frm others. o Authority- power that is regarded as legitimate by those whom it is exercised, who also accepts the authority legitimacy in imposing sanctions or even in using force if necessary. o Coercion- power tht is regarded as illegitimate by those whom it is exerted. Political Authority: o Legal Rational Authority: is derived from understanding that specific individuals have clearly defined rights and duties to upload and implement rules and procedures personally. Power in positions and Offices o Traditionally Authority: rooted in the assumptions that the customs of the past legitimate the present. Hereditary o Charismatic Authority: derives from the rulers ability to inspire passion and devotion among the followers. Example: John F Kennedy President tof the US 1) Leader supernatural 2) Believe leaders statements 3) Comply with leaders 4) Give the leaders unqualified emotions commitment Government and the State State- is the institutionalized way of organizing power within territorial limits. Functions of the state: o Establish law and norms o Provide social control o Ensuring economic stability o Setting goals o Protecting Against outside threats Lenin Explained: State is a special organizations of force: its organiziations of violence for the oppression some class. Different Types of States/ Structure of Main form of Government: (1) Autocracy- the ultimate authority and rule of the governments with one person, who is the chief source of laws and the major agent of social control. Loyalty and devotion of people is required o Examples: North Korea, Saudi Arabi, Cuba, Vietnam (2) Totalitarian government- one group has virtually total control of nations social institutions. o Elements in Totalitarian Government: A single political party Terror Control of media Control over the military Control over the economy An elaborate Ideology Democracy o Comes from greek work Demos, meaning people and kratia meaning authority Rules was by the people not individuals o Refers, to a political system operating under the principles of constitutionalism, representative govt, majority rule, civilian rule, and minority rights. Constitutionalism- means govt power is limited. Gov’t can take away rights. Representative gov’t- authority to govern s achieved through, and legitimatized by, popular elections. Electorate- citizens eligible to vote. Civilian rule- every qualified citizen right to run for and hold the office eof the govt. Functionalist and Conflict Theory Views of the State Functionalist View: State is social stratification—and the state that maintains it—as necessary devices that recruit workers to perform the tasks needed to sustain society o State emerged because society grew so large and complex that only a state could manage the society increasing complicated and intertwined institutions. Conflict Theory View: Certain groups were able to seize contl of means of production and distribution of commodities. In doing so the grps were able to establish themselves as powerful ruling classes. o State emerged to allow the ruling classes to protect their institutionalized supremacy from the lower class. The Economy and The State Wealth and Power is bad for society o Wealth of the rich is the cause of poverty for the poor Adam Smith, 1723- 90) poverty was due to the insufficient productions of wealth.--> father of modern capitalism. o Wealth of Nations: Private Property Freedom of Choice Freedom of Competition Freedom from Government Interference o Smith said best thing for the government to do when it comes to business is to stay out of it, is considered the laissez- faire capitalism. french word mean to allow to act. The economy, is the social institutions that determines how a society produces, distributes, and consume goods and services. Capitalism, is an economic system based on to provide ownership if the means of productions and in which resource allocation depends largely on market forces. o Two premises: Production “for pursuit of profit and ever renewed profit” Free will market will determine what is produced and at what price. U.S govt is mixed economy, combines free enterprises capitalism with govtmental regulation of business, industry, and social welfare programs. Marxist Response to Capitalism: o Smith believe ordinary ppl would thrive under capitalism o In contrast, Marx convinced that capitalism produces a small grp of well too do individuals while the masses suffer under tyranny of those who exploit them for profit. Profits will go down as production expand. Socialism, is an economic system in which the sources of production— including factories, raw materials, and transportations, and communications systems—are collectively owned. o Capitalism is for private profit and Socialism is more about the economic activity should be guided by public needs rather than private profit. Alternate and Against Capitalism o Ideal socialism has: Public Ownership of Production and Property Government Control of Economy Without a Profit Central Planning. o Capitalist View of Socialism No Incentive to Increase Production Waste of Resources Overregulation’s and Inflexibility Corruption of Power Democratic Socialism o Is a convergence of capitalist and socialist economic theory in which the state assumes ownerships of strategic industries and services but allows other enterprises to remain in private hands. Convergence of the capitalist and the and socialism Political Change Can occur when there is a shift in distribution of power. o Can change thru establish connection with the govt or rebellion and revolution Institutionalized Political Change o Democracies, change leaders thru election o Dictatorship and Totalitarian crisis of authority can occur Assassinations and revolution are more likely to occur Rebellion- are attempts—typically through the armed forces—to achieve rapid political change that is not possible within existing institutions. Revolutions- are attempts at rapidly and dramatically chaining in one’s society previously existing structure. o Political Revolution- relatively rapid transformations of state gov’t structures without changes in social structure of stratification o Social Revolution- rapid and basic transformations of society state and class structure. American Political System Democratic and Republicans o Have groups. Winner takes all basis. Filters out extreme political views Voting Behavior: o Totalitarian system: strong forces put on ppl to vote o Voting rates: Vary with Characteristics Social characteristics African Americans as a Political Force. Hispanic as a Political Force. Role of Media o Contributed to radical transformation of election campaigns Special Interest Groups: Lobbying refers to attempts by special interest groups to influence govt policy. o Farmers lobby for agricultural subsides. o They don represent the majority NOR all the social classes. Lobbyists: o Goes back to presidency of Ulysses S Grant wife would let him smoke cigars in the white house so he would smoke in his lobby and people who wanted to speak with him for political favor became known as lobbyist. o Personable and extremely knowledgeable about the area of their interest grp. Political Action Committees, are special interest grp called (PACS) are organized to raised and spend money to elect and defeat political candidates, ballot initiatives, and other legislation.
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