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SCI 1101 CH2-2 Outline

by: nako.nako.nako

SCI 1101 CH2-2 Outline SCI 1101

Marketplace > Kennesaw State University > SCI 1101 > SCI 1101 CH2 2 Outline
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Red font = materials that Prof. Abikoye emphasized and likely to be on the test.
Science, Society & Environ I
Professor Kay Abikoye
Class Notes
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This 39 page Class Notes was uploaded by nako.nako.nako on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SCI 1101 at Kennesaw State University taught by Professor Kay Abikoye in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
Lecture  Outlines Chapter  2 Earth’s  Physical  Systems: Matter,  Energy,  and  Geology Withgott/Laposata Fifth  Edition This  lecture  will  help  you  understand: § The  fundamentals  of  matter  and  chemistry § Energy  and  energy  flow § Photosynthesis,  respiration,  and  chemosynthesis Central  Case  Study:  The  Tohoku  Earthquake § Earthquake  on  the  Japanese  island  of  Honshu   caused  a  massive  tsunami § The  waves  overtopped  the  sea  walls,  causing   flooding  up  to  9.6  km  inland § The  tsunami  knocked  out  power  to  the  Fukushima   Daiichi  nuclear  power  plant,  causing  the  fuel  to  melt   and  the  release  of  radioactive  material § Many  countries  are  now  questioning  the  safety  of   nuclear  power ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Matter,  Chemistry,  and  the  Environment § Chemistry: studies  types  of  matter  along  with  how   they  interact § Chemistry  is  crucial  for  understanding: § How  gases  contribute  to  global  climate  change § How  pollutants  cause  acid  rain § Pesticide  effects  on  health  or  wildlife  and  people § Water  pollution § Wastewater  treatment § Atmospheric  ozone  depletion   § Energy  issues Matter  is  conserved § Matter = all  material  in  the  universe  that  has  that   has  mass  and  occupies  space § The  law  of  conservation  of  matter  = matter  can  be   transformed  from  one  type  of  substance  into  others,   but  I  can’t  be  destroyed  or  created § Because  the  amount  of  matter  stays                          ,   § it  is  recycled  in  nutrient  cycles  and  ecosystems § we  cannot  simply  wish  pollution  and  waste  away Atoms  and  elements  are  chemical  building   blocks § Element = a  fundamental  type  of  matter § A  chemical  substance  with  a  given  set  of  properties § Atoms = the  smallest  components  that  maintain  an   element’s  chemical  properties § The  atom’s  nucleus  (center) has  protons (positively   charged  particles) and  neutrons (particles  lacking   electric  charge) § Atomic  number = the  number  of  protons § Electrons  =  negatively  charged  particles   surrounding  the  nucleus Reading  an  element ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Isotopes  and  Ions § Isotopes = atoms  of  the  same  element  with  different   numbers  of  neutrons § Isotopes  of  an  element  behave  differently   § Mass  number = the  combined  number  of  protons   and  neutrons § Atoms  that  gain  or  lose  electrons  become  electrically   charged  ions ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Atoms  bond  to  form  molecules  and  compounds § Molecules = combinations  of  two  or  more  atoms § Oxygen  gas  = O 2 § Compound = a  molecule  composed  of  atoms  of   two  or  more  different  elements § Water = 2  hydrogen  atoms  boned  to  one  oxygen   atom:  H 2 § Carbon  dioxide  = 1  Carbon  atom  with  2  oxygen   atoms:  CO 2 Atoms  bond  to  form  molecules  and  compounds § Atoms  bone  because  of  an  attraction  for  each  other’s   electrons § In  some  bonds,  atoms  share  electrons  equally  (e.g.,  H ) 2 § Atoms  may  share  electrons  unequally § The  oxygen  in  water  attracts  hydrogen’s  electrons   § Ionic  compounds  (salts)  = an  electron  is  transferred + § Ta-e  salt  (NaCl):  the  Na ion  donated  an  electron  to  the   Cl ion § Solutions = a  mixture  of  substances  with  no  chemical   bonding  (ex.  Air,  ocean  water,  petroleum,  ozone) Atoms  bond  to  form  molecules  and  compounds § In ionic  bonds  electrons  are  transferred  between   atoms     § In covalent  bonds  electrons  are  shared  between   atoms Water’s  chemistry  facilitates  life   § Hydrogen  bond  = oxygen  from  one  water  molecule   attracts  hydrogen  atoms  of  another § Water’s  strong  cohesion  allows  transport  of  nutrients   and  waste § Water  absorbs  heat  with  only  small  changes  in  its   temperature § Stabilizes  water,  organisms,  and  climate Weakest  type  of  ionic  and  covalenet bonds ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Water’s  chemistry  facilitates  life § Less  dense  ice  floats  on  liquid  water § This  insulates  lakes  and  ponds  in  winter § Water  dissolves  other  molecules  that  are  vital  for  life ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Hydrogen  ions  determine  acidity § The  pH  scale  quantifies  the  acidity  of  solutions § Ranges  from  0  to  14 § Acidic solutions:    pH  <  7 § Basic solutions:    pH  >  7 § Neutral solutions:    pH  =  7 § The  pH  scale  is  logarithmic § a  substance  with  pH  of  6  contains  10  times  as  many   hydrogen  ions  as  a  substance  with  pH  of  7 Know  this   graph  and   be  able  to   guess  if   substance  is   basic/acidic ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Matter  is  composed  of  organic  and  inorganic   compounds § Organic  compounds = carbon  (and  hydrogen)   atoms  joined  by  bonds  and  may  include  other   elements § For  example,  nitrogen,  oxygen,  sulfur,  phosphorus § Inorganic  compounds  lack  the  carbon-­carbon  bond     § Polymers  = long  chains  of  carbon  molecules § The  building  blocks  of  life Matter  is  composed  of  organic  and  inorganic   compounds § Hydrocarbons = contain  only  carbon  and  hydrogen § The  simplest  hydrocarbon  is  methane  (natural  gas) § Hydrocarbons  can  be  a  gas,  liquid,  or  solid § Fossil  fuels  consist  of  hydrocarbons § Some  can  be  harmful  to  wildlife ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Macromolecules  are  building  blocks  of  life § Polymers = long  chains  of  repeated  molecules § Carbohydrates  (polysaccharides)  are  one  type  of   polymer Macromolecules  are  building  blocks  of  life § Macromolecules = large-­sized  molecules § Three  types  of  polymers  are  essential  to  life § Proteins § Nucleic  acids § Carbohydrates § Lipids  are  not  polymers,  but  are  also  essential § Fats  and  oils  store  energy § Phospholipids  are  structural  components  of  cell   membranes § Steroids  work  as  hormones Macromolecules  are  building  blocks  of  life § Proteins = long  chains  of  amino  acids § They  provide  structural  support,  store  energy,  and   transport  material § Animals  use  proteins  to  generate  skin,  hair,  muscles,   and  tendons § Some  are  components  of  the  immune  system  or   work  as  hormones § They  can  serve  as  enzymes,  molecules  that   promote  chemical  reactions Macromolecules  are  building  blocks  of  life § Nucleic  acids = long  chains  of  nucleotides  that   contain  sugar,  phosphate,  and  a  nitrogen  base § Deoxyribonucleic  acid  (DNA) and  ribonucleic   acid  (RNA) carry  hereditary  information  of   organisms § DNA  forms  a  double  helix  (A-­T-­C) § Genes = regions  of  DNA  that  code  for  proteins  that   perform  certain  functions ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Macromolecules  are  building  blocks  of  life § Carbohydrates  = atoms  of  carbon,  hydrogen,  and   oxygen § Sugars = simple  carbohydrates  of  3–7  carbons § Glucose  provides  energy  for  cells § Complex  carbohydrates  build  structures  and  store   energy § Starch  stores  energy  in  plants § Animals  eat  plants  to  get  starch § Chitin  forms  shells  of  insects  and  crustaceans § Cellulose  is  in  cell  walls  of  plants Energy:  An  Introduction § Energy = the  capacity  to  change  the  position,   physical  composition,  or  temperature  of  matter § involved  in  physical,  chemical,  biological  processes § Potential  energy = energy  of  position § Nuclear,  mechanical  energy § Kinetic  energy = energy  of  motion § Thermal,  light,  sound,  electrical,  subatomic  particles § Chemical  energy = potential  energy  held  in  the   bongs  between  atoms ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Energy  is  always  conserved,  but  it  changes  in   quality § First  law  of  thermodynamics = energy  can   change  forms,  but  can’t  be  created  or  destroyed § Second  law  of  thermodynamics = energy   changes  from  a  more-­ordered  to  a  less-­ordered   state § Entropy = an  increasing  state  of  disorder § Inputting  energy  from  outside  the  system  increases   order ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Some  energy  sources  are  easier  to  harness   than  others § An  energy  source’s  nature  determines  how  easily   energy  can  be  harnessed § Fossil  fuels  provide  concentrated  energy   § Sunlight  is  spread  out  and  difficult  to  harness § Energy  conversion  efficiency  = the  ratio  of  useful   energy  output  to  the  amount  needing  to  be  input § 16%  of  the  energy  released  from  gasoline  is  used  to   power  the  automobile—the  rest  is  lost  as  heat § Only  5%  of  an  incandescent  light  bulb’s  energy  is   converted  to  light Light  energy  from  the  sun  powers  most  living   systems § The  sun  releases  radiation  from  the  electromagnetic   spectrum § Solar  energy  drives  weather  and  climate  and  powers   plant  growth § Autotrophs  (primary  producers)  = organisms  that   produce  their  own  food  (e.g.,  green  plants,  algae,   cyanobacteria) § Photosynthesis = the  process  of  turning  the  sun’s   diffuse  light  energy  into  concentrated  chemical   energy ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Photosynthesis  produces  food  for  plants  and   animals § Chloroplasts = organelles  where  photosynthesis   occurs § Contain  chlorophyll = a  light-­absorbing  pigment § Light  reaction = splits  water  by  using  solar  energy § Calvin  cycle = links  carbon  atoms  from  carbon  dioxide   into  sugar  (glucose) 6CO +26H O  2 the  sun’s  energy       C 6 O12s6gar)  + 6O 2 Conclusion § Solving  environmental  problems  depends  on   understanding  matter,  chemistry,  and  energy § Physical  processes  of  geology  (e.g.,  plate  tectonics,   the  rock  cycle)  are  centrally  important § They  shape  terrain  and  form  the  foundation  of  living   system § Geologic  processes  can  threaten  us § Processes  in  one  location  can  initiate  events  whose   impacts  go  far  beyond  that  one  location


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