SCI 1101 CH2-2 Outline
SCI 1101 CH2-2 Outline SCI 1101
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This 39 page Class Notes was uploaded by nako.nako.nako on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SCI 1101 at Kennesaw State University taught by Professor Kay Abikoye in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Lecture Outlines Chapter 2 Earth’s Physical Systems: Matter, Energy, and Geology Withgott/Laposata Fifth Edition This lecture will help you understand: § The fundamentals of matter and chemistry § Energy and energy flow § Photosynthesis, respiration, and chemosynthesis Central Case Study: The Tohoku Earthquake § Earthquake on the Japanese island of Honshu caused a massive tsunami § The waves overtopped the sea walls, causing flooding up to 9.6 km inland § The tsunami knocked out power to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, causing the fuel to melt and the release of radioactive material § Many countries are now questioning the safety of nuclear power © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Matter, Chemistry, and the Environment § Chemistry: studies types of matter along with how they interact § Chemistry is crucial for understanding: § How gases contribute to global climate change § How pollutants cause acid rain § Pesticide effects on health or wildlife and people § Water pollution § Wastewater treatment § Atmospheric ozone depletion § Energy issues Matter is conserved § Matter = all material in the universe that has that has mass and occupies space § The law of conservation of matter = matter can be transformed from one type of substance into others, but I can’t be destroyed or created § Because the amount of matter stays , § it is recycled in nutrient cycles and ecosystems § we cannot simply wish pollution and waste away Atoms and elements are chemical building blocks § Element = a fundamental type of matter § A chemical substance with a given set of properties § Atoms = the smallest components that maintain an element’s chemical properties § The atom’s nucleus (center) has protons (positively charged particles) and neutrons (particles lacking electric charge) § Atomic number = the number of protons § Electrons = negatively charged particles surrounding the nucleus Reading an element © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Isotopes and Ions § Isotopes = atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons § Isotopes of an element behave differently § Mass number = the combined number of protons and neutrons § Atoms that gain or lose electrons become electrically charged ions © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Atoms bond to form molecules and compounds § Molecules = combinations of two or more atoms § Oxygen gas = O 2 § Compound = a molecule composed of atoms of two or more different elements § Water = 2 hydrogen atoms boned to one oxygen atom: H 2 § Carbon dioxide = 1 Carbon atom with 2 oxygen atoms: CO 2 Atoms bond to form molecules and compounds § Atoms bone because of an attraction for each other’s electrons § In some bonds, atoms share electrons equally (e.g., H ) 2 § Atoms may share electrons unequally § The oxygen in water attracts hydrogen’s electrons § Ionic compounds (salts) = an electron is transferred + § Ta-e salt (NaCl): the Na ion donated an electron to the Cl ion § Solutions = a mixture of substances with no chemical bonding (ex. Air, ocean water, petroleum, ozone) Atoms bond to form molecules and compounds § In ionic bonds electrons are transferred between atoms § In covalent bonds electrons are shared between atoms Water’s chemistry facilitates life § Hydrogen bond = oxygen from one water molecule attracts hydrogen atoms of another § Water’s strong cohesion allows transport of nutrients and waste § Water absorbs heat with only small changes in its temperature § Stabilizes water, organisms, and climate Weakest type of ionic and covalenet bonds © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Water’s chemistry facilitates life § Less dense ice floats on liquid water § This insulates lakes and ponds in winter § Water dissolves other molecules that are vital for life © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Hydrogen ions determine acidity § The pH scale quantifies the acidity of solutions § Ranges from 0 to 14 § Acidic solutions: pH < 7 § Basic solutions: pH > 7 § Neutral solutions: pH = 7 § The pH scale is logarithmic § a substance with pH of 6 contains 10 times as many hydrogen ions as a substance with pH of 7 Know this graph and be able to guess if substance is basic/acidic © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Matter is composed of organic and inorganic compounds § Organic compounds = carbon (and hydrogen) atoms joined by bonds and may include other elements § For example, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, phosphorus § Inorganic compounds lack the carbon-carbon bond § Polymers = long chains of carbon molecules § The building blocks of life Matter is composed of organic and inorganic compounds § Hydrocarbons = contain only carbon and hydrogen § The simplest hydrocarbon is methane (natural gas) § Hydrocarbons can be a gas, liquid, or solid § Fossil fuels consist of hydrocarbons § Some can be harmful to wildlife © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Macromolecules are building blocks of life § Polymers = long chains of repeated molecules § Carbohydrates (polysaccharides) are one type of polymer Macromolecules are building blocks of life § Macromolecules = large-sized molecules § Three types of polymers are essential to life § Proteins § Nucleic acids § Carbohydrates § Lipids are not polymers, but are also essential § Fats and oils store energy § Phospholipids are structural components of cell membranes § Steroids work as hormones Macromolecules are building blocks of life § Proteins = long chains of amino acids § They provide structural support, store energy, and transport material § Animals use proteins to generate skin, hair, muscles, and tendons § Some are components of the immune system or work as hormones § They can serve as enzymes, molecules that promote chemical reactions Macromolecules are building blocks of life § Nucleic acids = long chains of nucleotides that contain sugar, phosphate, and a nitrogen base § Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) carry hereditary information of organisms § DNA forms a double helix (A-T-C) § Genes = regions of DNA that code for proteins that perform certain functions © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Macromolecules are building blocks of life § Carbohydrates = atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen § Sugars = simple carbohydrates of 3–7 carbons § Glucose provides energy for cells § Complex carbohydrates build structures and store energy § Starch stores energy in plants § Animals eat plants to get starch § Chitin forms shells of insects and crustaceans § Cellulose is in cell walls of plants Energy: An Introduction § Energy = the capacity to change the position, physical composition, or temperature of matter § involved in physical, chemical, biological processes § Potential energy = energy of position § Nuclear, mechanical energy § Kinetic energy = energy of motion § Thermal, light, sound, electrical, subatomic particles § Chemical energy = potential energy held in the bongs between atoms © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Energy is always conserved, but it changes in quality § First law of thermodynamics = energy can change forms, but can’t be created or destroyed § Second law of thermodynamics = energy changes from a more-ordered to a less-ordered state § Entropy = an increasing state of disorder § Inputting energy from outside the system increases order © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Some energy sources are easier to harness than others § An energy source’s nature determines how easily energy can be harnessed § Fossil fuels provide concentrated energy § Sunlight is spread out and difficult to harness § Energy conversion efficiency = the ratio of useful energy output to the amount needing to be input § 16% of the energy released from gasoline is used to power the automobile—the rest is lost as heat § Only 5% of an incandescent light bulb’s energy is converted to light Light energy from the sun powers most living systems § The sun releases radiation from the electromagnetic spectrum § Solar energy drives weather and climate and powers plant growth § Autotrophs (primary producers) = organisms that produce their own food (e.g., green plants, algae, cyanobacteria) § Photosynthesis = the process of turning the sun’s diffuse light energy into concentrated chemical energy © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Photosynthesis produces food for plants and animals § Chloroplasts = organelles where photosynthesis occurs § Contain chlorophyll = a light-absorbing pigment § Light reaction = splits water by using solar energy § Calvin cycle = links carbon atoms from carbon dioxide into sugar (glucose) 6CO +26H O 2 the sun’s energy C 6 O12s6gar) + 6O 2 Conclusion § Solving environmental problems depends on understanding matter, chemistry, and energy § Physical processes of geology (e.g., plate tectonics, the rock cycle) are centrally important § They shape terrain and form the foundation of living system § Geologic processes can threaten us § Processes in one location can initiate events whose impacts go far beyond that one location
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