HIST week 8
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astro100-02 Exploring the Universe
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This 34 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anisa sudra on Wednesday April 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Oregon taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.
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Date Created: 04/01/15
Astronomy Lecture amp Book Notes 04032015 Friday 4315 LECTURE NOTES 0 Science is not static it s a process Telescope Gemini 0 Computerized vent gates for windweather conditions Built by RSF and colleagues Gives views of astronomical objects we cannot obtain our eyes 0 Used to study the interstellar medium and dust disks around stars 0 IR longer wavelength than visible light 0 IR cameras like OSCIR see wavelengths 20 times longer than we see 0 Like seeing quotheat wavesquot 0 Our eyes only see a little bit of the spectrum the colored part 0 Oscir sees the infrared part of the spectrum 0 What we see and oscir sees are extremely different Oscir sees what s inbetween stars This camera is sensitive to what these things emit a Orion photo example Dust grains gas etc 0 Different types of telescopes see different parts of the spectrum 0 Everything emits radiation and the temperature of the object determines how it will emit DESCRIBED BY THE PLANCK FUNCTION 0 Our eyes generally see about 10000 degrees f oscir camera can see about 100 degreed f infrared Interstellar medium is the gas and dust that exists between the stars 0 Many of the space pictures are of this 0 Looks dense but is very very diffuse MONDAY 4615 11 our modern View of the universe goals 0 what is our place in the universe How did we come to be 0 How can we know what the universe was like in the past 0 Can we see the entire universe the distance light can travel in 1 year its not a year it s a distance 0 About 6 trillion miles 10 trillion km 0 1 parsec 325 light years 0 light travels at a xed speed 0 We look at it on a relative scale Not absolute scale quotcosmic addressquot 0 earth is our home in the solar system look at opening graphic in the textbook scaleofuniversecom powers of 10 a large glowing ball of gas that generates heat and light through nuclear fusion 0 Fusion in the sun is how it generates its energy how it warms the earth 0 solar prominence eruptive events from the sun 0 they are pointed towards earth and make an aurora o A strong prominence will be bad for the earth 0 Stereo satelite satellite pointed at the sun 0 109 earths will fir across the diameter of the sun diameter of autzen stadium approx 109 of you 0 the surface of the sun is called the photosphere You cannot stand on the sun The temperature of the surface is 5800 K o The mass of the sun is roughly 330000 earths o The distance to the sun is 93000000 miles Equal to 8 lightminutes how fast light can move in a minute your eyes are passive light you are seeing is in the past Also called 1 astronomical unit a moderately large object that orbits a star it shines by re ected light look at Cassini homepage o Primarily made of hydrogen like other gas giants Rings are made of dry ice and pebbles O WEDNESDAY 4815 a moderately large object that orbits a star THAT IS NOT THE SUN 0 May be rocky icy or gaseous in composition 0 The rst exoplanets were discovered in the 1990 s 0 We now know about 1800 planets around other stars 0 As time progresses more and more planets will be discovered around stars 0 Current theories suggest that approximately 20 15 of stars in our galaxy have planets o All are too far away to see detail Which means that they re only quotdots on imagesquot for now 0 The discovery of these completely changes our quotplace in the universequot again We know that the solar system is one of many planetary systems 0 This will be one of the de ning discoveries of our generations time o The moon vs the usa 0 Diameter of the moon 2100 miles 0 Diameter of the earth 7900 miles 0 Earth is about 4x bigger than the moon o 450 tons 14 years of continuous human occupation orbits the earth about 200 miles up 0 about the distance from Eugene to seattle 0 watch ISS timelapse 0 An object that orbits a planet or dwarf planet 0 A moon of Saturn ENCELADUS 0 Water ice fountains geysers These suggest that it might have liquid water below the surface and maybe life 0 Along with Europa moon ofJupiter are excellent places to search for extraterrestrial life 0 APRIL 4th cassini detects enceladus ocean 6 mile deep underground ocean of liquid water we measured what the density of the moon due to its gravity moving the spacecraft This could only happen with the presence of water relatively small and rocky object that orbits a star 0 Between mars and Jupiter 0 They are a quotfailed planetquot Ceres is the largest 600 miles in diameter 0 quotnear earthquot asteroids ones who have orbits that quotcrossquot the orbit of earth a relatively small and icy object that orbits a star o The ice allows the comet to form the tail of the comet A comet s nucleus is about the size of a mountain 0 The tail is MUCH larger than that most are millions of miles long 0 The tail forms as ice and gas boils away as the comet nears the sun 0 Stuff in the comet tail dust water coZ methane ethane etc also all stuff that the comet is made off of 0 These materials come off of the nucleus and form the tail 0 it is made primarily of ice water and coZ dry ice comets are thought to be the main source of the water on Earth o In earth s early formation cometary impacts brought the water MONDAY 41315 0 Photo of the day Comet with the Pleiades m45 a relatively small and icy object that orbits a star 0 The ice allows the comet to form the tail of the comet A comet s nucleus is about the size of a mountain 0 The tail is MUCH larger than that most are millions of miles long 0 The tail forms as ice and gas boils away as the comet nears the sun 0 Stuff in the comet tail dust water coZ methane ethane etc also all stuff that the comet is made off of 0 These materials come off of the nucleus and form the tail 0 it is made primarily of ice water and coZ dry ice comets are thought to be the main source of the water on Earth 0 In earth s early formation cometary impacts brought the water 0 Raises the where did all the water on the planet come from 0 Rosetta mission a spacecraft in orbit around a comet RIGHT NOW 0 O O O Spacecraft will follow the comet around the sun It released a lander named Philae that landed on the comet Then it bounced and landed on the side of a cliff but it worked on earth Philae weighed about 5kg but on the comet it weighed the amount of a paperclip o a star and all the material that orbits it including its planets and moons The name of the sun is also sol gt ours is the solar system 0 The Pluto situation Kuiper belt object an object with an orbit that extends beyond Neptune and into the Kuiper belt 0 O 0 There is not jus tone Pluto there are thousands Pluto is kinda big and kinda near this is why it was discovered in 1930 Pluto wasn t Demoted but PROmoted is id the rst of a new class of object Pluto was discovered when telescopes weren t as advanced as they are today the telescopes we have today allow us to see many other objects similar to Pluto Pluto will be revisited soon by the quotnew horizonsquot mission It will get to Pluto in 3 months from now But plutos gravity is not strong enough to hold down the mission so it will just y by o LARGEST KNOWN KUIPER BELT OBJECTS Xena pluto 2005 fy9 2003 el61 sedan quaoar a great island of stars in space all held together by gravity and orbiting a common center 0 They are the largest single objects in all the universe 0 A galaxy like the milky way contains around 100 billion stars and probably at least that many planets 0 We cannot take a photo of the milky way bc we cannot get a camera that will capture the whole frame of stars Andromeda galaxy m31 73pes of galaxies 0 Spiral Younger galaxies o Elliptical As galaxies evolve and age they start out as spirals but then progress into elliptical galaxies the sum total of all matter and energy that is everything within and between all galaxies 0 Watch the known universe by amnh WEDNESDAY 41515 Photo of the day new horizon s rst color pic of Pluto Andromeda is an analog of the milky way when will we be able to see what the Andromeda galaxy looks like now 0 roughly 25 million years in the future back it will take the light that long to get from Andromeda to earth THE ULTIMATE SPEED LIMIT C Light travels at a nite speed NOTHING can travel faster than this 186000 milessec 7 times around the earth in 1 second because of the fact that is takes light time to move we see objects as they were in the past The farther away we look in the distance the further back we look Hundred thousand light years across All galaxies outside our local group are moving away from us The more distant the galaxy the faster its racing away 0 Conclusion we live in an expanding universe Galaxies that are farter away are moving away from us farther o Liner relationship on hubble s law plot a galaxy 2 times farther away is moving away 2 times as fast 0 insert photo of plot 0 o All galaxies outside the local group in all directions are moving away from us 0 Beginning of thought experiment Yesterdaythey were closer than todayast year they were closer than this yearetc quotrunning the clock backwardsquot universe getting smaller and smaller El FRIDAY 41715 0 The big bang Which means implications bc the universe had a beginning Which means we have measured the universe the universe is 1384 billion years old 0 We did this by measuring how fast the galaxy is moving 0 And by a spacecraft mapping the entire sky with temperature THE BIG BANG what the beginning event is caHed Observable universe what we can seewe can only see 1384 billion light years away O o 0 how d o 0 Only hydrogen and helium and a little bit of lithium were created in this event 80 of you is carbon nitrogen oxygen we are made of starstuff sagan id we come to be Galactic recycling Stars like the sun give out energy this energy warms us is a byproduct of fusion Stars slowly convert to H and He into heavier elements Elements are distributed throughout the galaxy by supernovae stellar winds Clouds of gas and dust the ISM form into a new generation of stars Meaning for life We are the universe contemplating itself You are not in the universe the universe is in you MONDAY 42015 exam 1 chapter 1 all info on the class slides anything emphasized in class format multiple choice short answer ll in blank short writing atmosphere is 60 miles away 12 the scale of the universe a quotscaledquot solar system 0 is one of about 100 billion galaxies in the observable universe roughly 10000 particles area of the sky is 110 of the size on the full moon Took HST about 11 days to observable this deep Selected to be the emptiest part of the sky 0 A scale on which we compress the history of the universe into 1 yeah There are roughly the same amount 13 spaceship earth Earth rotates on an axis gt600 mileshr Earth orbits the sun gt60000 mileshr Solar system moves among stars 45000 mph Milky way rotates 5000000 mph Milky way moves in local groups Universe expands Chapter 2 Discovering the universe for yourself HW 3 0 We measure the sky using angles o The angle it subtends at a given distance o It is not constant angular size decreases with distance 0 An size is how big it is o Is constant and does not change o the true and angular size of the moon stays the same whether or not it is near your horizon The illusion is your quotbrain helpingquot you by doing what it thinks is best making the moon match the things that it sees as next to it o A region of thy sky o 88 constellations ll the entire sky 0 The shapes are actually called asterisms aka constellations 0 stars at different distances all appear to lie on the celestial sphere o Allusion that we live under a dome of the sky and its 88 constellations Starsconstellationsclusters are not at All are 3D 0 I Is the sun s apparent path through the celestial sphere The 88 constellations cover the celestial sphere WEDNESDAY 42215 Picture of the day comet cG 67P taken from Rosetta spacecraft Why do stars rise and set 0 Earth rotates west to east so stars appear to circle from east to west 0 Coordinates position north or south of equator position east of west of prime meridian runs thru Greenwich England astronomy was a big thing in England in the 18005 n EUGENE N 44 W 123 Direction angle of stars changes the further you go from the equator n Depends on where the person is standing the latitude n Example on the equator the star trails are straight updown Stars near the north and south pole are called circumpolar and never set This means that they never go below your local horizon Why do the constellations we see depend on the latitude and time of year 0 They depend on latitude bc your position on earth determines which constellations remain below the horizon 0 They depend on time of year bc earth s orbit changes the apparent location of 0 As earth orbits the sun the sun appears to move w respect to the stars 0 What does the universe look like from the earth 0 W the naked eye we can see more than 2000 individual stars as well as the milky way The light from the milky way is the combined light of millions of stars in the disk of our galaxy 23 the moon our constant companion what causes eclipses o The earth and moon cast shadows 0 When either passes through the other s shadow we have an 0 Solar eclipse moon in front of sun Eclipses recue with the 18 year 11 13 but the type of eclipse and the location may vary Photo of the day Moon la luna moon ower 0 Infrared and ultraviolet picture of encleadus observed by cassini o The ultraviolet is what highlights the texture and ridges 0 photo of encelaudus to scale in reality everything is various sizes They just show similar sizes in photos 0 Major Moons around the system of Sol within the solar system 0 Finding life best case europa and enceladus Moon phases 0 28 days for the moon to go around the earth 1 month if you keep constant track of the moon you see more and more of the moon as the month progresses Moon goes thru a cycle once a month in which we can predict for years Why do we see phases of the moon Lunar phases are a consequence of the moon s 273 day orbit around earth As the moon orbits we can see more and more of the side that is lit by the sun Moon 15quot away from earth on quotgrapefruit scalequot From earth to the moon 25 million miles 0 Sun is 400x further away than the moon Why do we see phases of the moon El Half of the moon is illuminated by the sun re ected sunlight and half is dark It makes no light itself We see a changing combo of the bright and dark faces as the moon orbits earth New moon up during the day and we can see it bc the sun is so bright it makes the sky brighter and bc we are looking at the side of the moon that is not illuminated Full moon when we can see the illuminated side a Quarter moon quarter of the moon is illuminated etc Phases are just different parts of the moon we can see that are being illuminated we only see one side of the moon a synchronous rotation the moon rotates exactly once with each revolution around the earth 0 This is why only one side is visible form earth 0 The earth and the moon are tidally locked the back side of the moon photo which was taken behind the moon as the spacecraft ew around it this shows the side of the moon that never faces the earth due to synchronous rotation n this quotdark sidequot isn t darkjust the other side 22 the reason for seasons the real reason for seasons is the tilt of the earth s axis The altitude of the sun changes with seasons 0 Sun s position a noon in the summer higher altitude means more direct sunlight o The shape of the path of the sun analemma o Sun s position at noon in the Winter lower altitude means less direct sunlight look at image in book for graphic Seasons depend on how earth s axis affects the directness of sunlight How does the orientation of earth39s axis change with time o The axis precesses over about 26000 years Which means Polaris wont always be the north star PRECESSION o The 2 systems of constellations are no longer aligned 0 Reason why astrology does not work 0 The stars move over time therefore the stars when you were born are not in the same place they are now WEDNESDAY 42915 Video driving on the moon Reading assignment 0 Read ch 3 esp 34 o Read ch 5 esp 53 0 Extra credit Hw 4 o Astro blog 34 the Nature of Science 0 goals 0 how can we distinguish science from nonscience Or more importantly a psedoscience o What is a scienti c theory Science vs non science 0 The word comes from the latin scientia meaning knowledge 0 Not all knowledge comes from science The idealized scienti c method 0 Based on proposing and testing hypotheses o Hypothesis educated guess 0 Add notes from slides FRIDAY 5115 Hallmarks of science 1 Modern science seeks explanation for observed phenomena that rely soley on natural causes 0 A scienti c model cant include Hallmarks of science 2 Hallmarks of science 3 A scienti c model must made testable predictions about natural phenomena that would force us to revise of abandon the model if these predictions do not agree You must start over THEORY has different meaning in science than in everyday life 0 in science a theory is no the same as a hypothesis A scienti c theory must 0 Explain a wide variety of observations with a few simple principles 0 Be supported by a large compelling body of EVIDENCE 0 NOT have failed any crucial test of its validity HCW distinguish science from non science HCW Chapter 53 TELESCOPES Extra credit observatory extra credit kiosk in eug due may 15 Telescope mind map CHAPTER 53 Photo of the day gibraldi Mauna kea is no longer the biggest 0 They collect more light than our eyes light collecting area 0 See more detail than our eyes angular resolution 0 They can detect types of light like infrared or x rays that are visible to our eyes better wavelength coverage bigger more light collecting area and better angular resolution the bowl shape in all telescopes focus light we have to have different types of telescopes to observe different parts of the spectrum w radio telescopes you can take multiple dishes and link them up as if they were one single telescope Basic telescope design 0 Lenses 0 Makeup pupil eyepiece focus objective lens incoming light 0 Older type 0 Mirrors bigger mirror more detail 0 all research telescopes today are re ecting o Newer Hi b Subaru name of the constellation pleadies in Japanese GTC gran telescopio canarias 104 segmented mirror 0 computers can only take care of these mirrors 0 0 light pollution 0 there is too much on the earth too bright to see anything 0 turbulence causes twinkling angular resolution 0 blurs images 0 based on earth v based in space 0 the atmosphere absorbs most of EM spectrum including all UV and X ray and most infrared O Web projects 59 or 60 or 61 o 12 pages about the observatory Include an image or 2 0 Include citations Globeatnightorg Worldwide project that measures how much light pollution there is 0 Air is opaque to mose wavelengths of radiation There are only a few windows where radiation like sunlight can make it to the surface of the earth 0 The visible window is where our eyes operate Location in space overcomes the problems of light pollution and turbulence 0 Nothing short of going to space can solve the problem of atmospheric absorption of light 0 The big problem is that they are very is expensive 1 hubble 20 gemini telescopes A secondary issue is with 39adaptive optics AO systems big telescopes like Geminikecktmt will rival space conditions 0 Rapid changes in mirror shape compensate for atmospheric turbulence o This technique allows two it more small telescopes to work together to obtain the angular resolution of a larger telescope 52 learning from light goals gt 0 how does light tell us what things are made of o A thin or low density cloud of gas emits light only at speci c wavelengths that depend on its composition and temperature producing a spectrum with bright emission lines o A cloud of gas between us and a light bulb can absorb light of speci c wavelengths leaving dark absorption lines in the spectrum 0 Each type of atom has a unique spectral line EXAM 2 FRIDAY MAY 22 101 A closer look at the sun GOALS Why does the sun shine What is the sun s structure WHY DOES THE SUN SHINE the amount of energy that the sun gives off each second Is the sun on re No If it were Chemical energy contentluminosity 10000 years Is the sun contracting No If it were Gravitational potential energyluminosity 25 million years The sun is powered by nuclear energy Nuclear potential energy coreluminosity 10 billion years 0 only nuclear reactions can provide energy for long enough a ow of charged particles from the surface of the sun There is a wind of these particles coming off of the sun this is what protects us from the solar wind Without the magnetic eld we would have MUCH stronger effects from the sun on Earth outermost layer of solar atmosphere 0 1 million K no one knows why it is this temp visible surface of the sun 0 600 K o the surface of the sun appears and is granular where energy is generated by nuclear fusion 0 15 million K 103 The SunEarth Connection GOALS What causes solar activity 0 What causes solar activity 0 Magnetic eld of the sun Solar activity is like weather on Earth Sunspots Solar ares Solar prominences Areas on the photosphere that are cooler than other parts of the sun s surface 400 K 0 These regions have strong magnetic elds 0 Loops of bright gas often connect sunspot pairs Caused by magnetic activity that sends bursts of x rays and charged particles into space 0 Magnetic activity send bursts of energetic charged particles out through the solar system a 1112 year cycle that has something to do with the winding and twisting of the sun s magnetic eld 0 Where activity rises and falls Chapter 13 o All of the elements on the periodic table except for H He Li is star stuff 0 Once Hydrogen fusion slows down it ends with a pulse that ejects the H and He into space 0 The core led behind becomes a white dwarf The White Dwarf illuminates the material causing it to glow as a planetary nebula White Dwarfs o The exposed Carbon core of a dead lowmass star that shed its outer layers in a planetary nebula 0 Electron degeneracy pressure supports a white dwarf against gravity 0 Sirius is also known as the Dog Star 0 The exposed Carbon core of a dead lowmass star that shed its outer layers in a planetary nebula 0 Electron degeneracy pressure supports a white dwarf against gravity 0 A white dwarf is about the same size as Earththey are VERY dense o 05 14 MSun packed into a sphere the size of the Earth 0 300000 Earth masses in the same volume 0 a teaspoon of white dwarf maaer would weigh several tons on Earth pressure force per unit area on container 0 When you remove the heat source gas cools down pressure drops gas gets more dense Pressure provided by electrons due to the effects of quantum mechanics A white dwarf that is supported by electron degeneracy is at almost the minimum volume that an amount of mass can be compressed into all the electrons are quotalmost touchingquot All available energy levels below a certain value are full so many highenergy quothotquot electrons cannot cool down lose energy 0 l they stay quothotquot even if there is no heat source Those quothotquot electrons provide the pressure that supports White Dwarf Quantum mechanics says that electrons that are very close to each other cannot have the same energy that means electrons can only get so close to each other and no closer Adding mass to a white dwarf increases its gravity forcing electrons and nuclei into a smaller and smaller space Is there a limit to how much you can shrink a white dwarf YES The Chandrasekhar Limit is when a white dwarf has a mass of 14 mes the mass of the Sun 14 Msun At this point the inward pull of gravity overwhelms outward pressure of electron degeneracy and the white dwarf collapses and goes supernova Collapse raises WD core temperature rapidly above 600 million K runaway carbon fusion begins and WD explodes Such an exploding WD called a white dwarf supernova A WD supernova attains a luminosity of 10 billion Suns lComplete explosion of WD nothing led behind 132 JUPITER AND FRIENDS Messier 35 0 Open star cluster about 2800 light years away 0 1500 stars these stars are orbiting around each other 0 in a disk of the milky way 0 2nCI cluster is NCG 2158 globular cluster 0 bigger star cluster Jupiter 0 About 38 light minutes away OUR COSMIC HOOD Most stars we see are 10500 light years away Most nebulae and open clusters are 100020000 light years away Milky way is 100000 light years in diameter LIFE OF A HIGH MASS STAR Have a majority of the stuff that we re made out of THRE AER 2 TYPES OF DEGENERATE OBJECTS White dwarf 0 Supported by electron degeneracy pressure you can only pressure electrons so far this is what keeps the white dwarfs from being crushed This is the leftover core of low mass star like the sun these will always have a mass of lt 14M sun Neuron star o Is the ball of neutrons left behind by a massivestar supernova O 0 Supported by neutron degeneracy pressure The leftover core of a high mass star with a mass between 14M sunlt M lt 3M sun A neutron star is about the same size as a small city How were these stars discovered Pulsars n Jocelyn bell accidentally discovered the radio source in vupecua n A sharp pulse recurred every 13 seconds a Determined to be 1000 light years away and called it a pulsar n this was discovered in the heart of the crab nebula and it also pulses in visual light a They are the lighthouses of our galaxy Anything heavier than 3M sun becomes a black hole Black hole object whose gravity is so powerful that not even light can escape it 0 O O O The gravity is so strong it distorts the space around it Event horizon spherical surface of the black hole that is the radius at which the escape velocity equals the speed of light Schwarzschild radius the radius of the event horizon According to einstein s general theory of relativity gravity is really the warping of space time about an object w a mass This means that even light is affected by gravity bc light travels thru time Spacetime is warped by bigger objects WHAT39RE NEUTRON STARS MADE OF NEUTRONS 0 Incredible heat and energy of collapsing core forces electrons to combine with protonstorn apart iron nuclei making neutrons and neutrinos THERE ARE 2 TYPES OF SUPERNOVA 0 White dwarf supernova type 1 0 Carbon fusion suddenly begins when a white dwarf in a close binary system exceeds chandreasekhar limit causing rapid collapse and explosion Massive star supernova Type 2 o For masses gt the neutron star limit 3Msun no known force can resist the crush of gravity 0 As far as we know gravity crushes all the matter into a single point known as a singularity Wednesday May 20 2015 0 Exam 2 0 Chapter 2 34 53 10 what we coveredsun 13 0 Shallow but broad Image descriptions Study photos on the slides Adaptive optics Way telescope from the ground can remove bad effects of the atmosphere 0 By propagating laser and making an arti cial star by tracking this star w the telescope and see distortions 0 We can change the shape of the mirror to cancel out the distortions 3 hallmarks of science if something uses all of these hallmakrs then it is a scienti c process 0 hypothesis prediction observations if the observations dot agree w your prediction then start over What do telescopes do that our eyes don t 0 Light gathering power better resolution other parts of the spectrum that we cant see w our eyes alone Sun 4 parts solar wind corona photosphere core solar prominices are smaller than ares same phenomenon but scale is differnet coronal mass ejections fusion convec on science literacyhaving a decent knowledge of scienti c topic to the level in a popular text being interested and wanting to read about it star stuff basic stuff from the beginning nal study session Monday 34 SIGN UP FOR EARLY FINAL Tuesday 24 paci c 16 Cumulative nal same format Chapter 18 Life in the universe 3 necessities for life 1 nutrient source 2 energy sunlight chemical reactions internal heat etc 3 liquid water or maybe some other liquid earliest life forms life prob arose on earth more than 385 billion years ago shortly after the end of heavy bombardment Evidence comes from fossils and carbon isotopes The geological time scale Dinosaurs gt KT event about 50 million years ago comet hit earth and after 100 yrs dinos went extinct The origin of life on earth Life evolves through time All life on earth shares a common ancestry We may never know exactly how the rst organism arose but lab experiments suggest plausible scenarios The theory of evolution The fossil record shows that evolution has occurred thru time Darwin s theory tells us how evolution occurs thru natural selection This theory was supported by the discovery of dna Evolution proceeds thru mutations Tree of life Map of genetic relationships Plants and animals are the small parts and this suggests likely characteristics of common ancestors These genetic studies suggest o Earliest life on earth may resemble the bacteria today found near deep volcanic vents and geothermal hot springs Millerurey experiment Shows simple building blocks of life Mixed gases together w lightening which created nucleotides what makes up dna Habitable planets A habitable word contains the basic necessities for life as we know it including liquid water It doesn t necessarily have life The more massive a star the larger habitable zone higher probability of a planet in this zone Finding planets around other stars is insanely hard New technology is on its way We already have pictures of exoplanets The drake equation Number of civilizations with whom we could potentially communicate SETI Search for extraterrestrial intelligence The telescopes listen for signals
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