CRJ 101 Chapter 6 Notes
CRJ 101 Chapter 6 Notes CRJ 101
Midlands Technical College
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrea Smith on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRJ 101 at Midlands Technical College taught by John B. Tucker in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Criminal Justice in Business and Public Service at Midlands Technical College.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
CRJ 101 Intro to Criminal Justice Chapter 6 The Police: Organization, Role, and Function Learning Objectives 1) Explain the organization of police departments. 2) Differentiate between the patrol function and the investigation function. 3) Discuss various efforts to improve patrol. 4) Discuss key issues associated with the investigative function. 5) Explain the concept of community policing. 6) List several challenges associated with community policing. 7) Discuss the concept of problemoriented policing. 8) Define intelligenceled policing and explain ways in which it occurs. 9) Explain the various police support functions. 10) Identify some of the costsaving measures that may be employed to improve productivity. Key Terms TimeinRank System: the promotion system in which a police officer can advance in a rank only after spending a prescribed amount of time in the preceding rank. Beats: designated police patrol areas. Order Maintenance (Peacekeeping): maintaining order and authority without the need for formal arrest—keeping things under control by means of threats, persuasion, and understanding. Proactive Policing: an aggressive law enforcement style in which patrol officers take the initiative against crime instead of waiting for criminal acts to occur. Broken Windows Model: the role of the police as maintainers of community order and safety. Procedural Justice: a concern with making decisions that are arrived at trough procedures viewed as fair. Vice Squads: police units assigned to enforce moralitybased laws, such as those addressing prostitution, gambling, and pornography. Sting Operation: organized groups of detectives who deceive criminals into openly committing illegal acts or conspiring to engage in criminal activity. CommunityOriented Policing (COP): programs designed to bring police and public closer together and create a more cooperative environment between them. Foot Patrol: police patrol that takes officers out of cars and puts them on a walking beat to strengthen ties with the community. ProblemOriented Policing (POP): a style of police management that stresses proactive problem solving instead of reactive crime fighting. Hot Spots of Crime: the relatively few locations from which a significant portion of police calls typically originate in metropolitan areas. Displacement: an effect that occurs when criminals move from an area targeted for increased police presence to another that is less well protected. IntelligenceLed Policing (ILP): the collection and analysis of information to generate an “intelligence end product” designed to inform police decision making at both the tactical and the strategic level. Tactical Intelligence: gaining or developing information related to threats of terrorism or crime and using this information to apprehend offenders, harden targets, and use strategies that will eliminate or mitigate the threat Strategic Intelligence: information about the changing nature of certain problems and threats for the purpose of developing response strategies and reallocating resources. National Criminal Intelligence Sharing Plan (NCISP): a formal intelligencesharing initiative that identifies the security and intelligencesharing needs recognized in the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Fusion Centers: a mechanism to exchange information and intelligence, maximize resources, streamline operations, and improve the ability to fight crime and terrorism by analyzing daya from a variety of sources. Internal Affairs: the police unit that investigates allegations of police misconduct. Police Productivity: the amount of order maintenance, crime control, and other law enforcement activities provided by individual police officers and concomitantly by police departments as a whole. Notes The Police Organization a majority of departments are organized in a hierarchical manner. Each element of the department has its own chain of command and rank system. New York’s rank from lowest to highest: police officer, detective specialist, detective investigator, sergeant (symbol of rank: 3 chevrons), lieutenant (symbol of rank: 1 gold bar), captain (2 gold bars), deputy inspector (gold oak leaf), inspector (gold eagle), deputy chief (1 gold star), assistant chief (2 gold stars), bureau chief (3 gold stars), chief of department (4 gold stars), deputy commissioner (3 gold stars), first deputy commissioner (4 gold stars), police commissioner (5 gold stars). The Patrol Function uniformed patrol officers are the backbone of the police department (twothirds of a department’s personnel.) Majority purposes: Deter crime by maintaining a visible police presence Maintain public order within the patrol area Enable the police department to respond quickly to law violations or other emergencies Identify and apprehend law violators Aid individuals and care for those who cannot help themselves Facilitate the movement of traffic and people Create a feeling of security in the community. Bulk of patrol effort is devoted to order maintenance or peacekeeping. Improving Patrol Aggressive patrol use proactive policing to help reduce crime rates. Can include increased targeting of specific offenses, more arrests or citations for specific offenses or infractions, or a combination of each. Can also have the added benefit of reducing more serious crimes. Broken Windows Policing Three key points: neighborhood disorder creates fear, neighborhoods give out crimepromoting signals, police need to aggressively target lowlevel “quality of life” crimes. Controversial but effective. Rapid Response criminals can be caught if the police can simply get to the scene of the crime quickly. Procedural Justice patrol can be more effective when police pay attention to how they treat citizens. (police being respectful=citizens satisfied with experience and police decisions) Use of Technology police departments rely on technology to help guide patrol efforts. CompStat: began in NYC; computerized system that gave the local precinct commanders uptodate information about where and when crime was occurring in their jurisdiction. Improving Patrol Strategy Tactic Goal Aggressive patrol Enforce law vigorously Give message that crime will not be tolerated Broken windows policing Target lowlevel offences and Prevent serious crime incivilities Rapid response Respond to 911 calls quickly Increase odds of catching lawbreakers Procedural justice Treat citizens with dignity and Increase chances of citizens respect helping police fight crime, such as by calling officers Use of technology Employ latest communication Identify criminals and target and mapping technologies crimes efficiently Investigative Function How Do Detectives Detect? 1) Specific Focus: detectives interview witnesses, gather evidence, record events, and collect facts that are available at the immediate crime scene. 2) General Coverage: detective who (a) canvass the neighborhood and make observations; (b) conduct interviews with friends, families, and associates; (c) contact coworkers or employers for information regarding victims and suspects; and (d) construct victim/suspect timelines to outline their whereabouts before the incident. 3) Informative Data Gathering: detectives use modern technology to collect records of cell phones and pagers, computer hard drives (tablets, laptops, notebooks, desktops, and servers), diaries, notes, and documents. The information includes the data used by persons of interest in the investigation that tell about their lives, interactions with others, and geographical connections. Sting Operations 1) Organized groups of detectives who deceive criminals into openly committing illegal acts of conspiring to engage in criminal activity Undercover Work 1) Detectives can go undercover to investigate a crime. 2) Is considered a necessary element of police work. However, it’s dangerous and can have negative effects on their physical and psychological state. 3) Police officers may be forced to engage in illegal or immoral behavior to maintain their cover Evaluating Investigations Improving Investigations 1) Unsolved Cases 2) Length of Investigation: most cases are investigated for no more than 4 hours stretching over 3 days. An average of 11 days elapse between the initial report of the crime and the suspension of the investigation. 3) Sources of Information: focus is on victim then shifts to the suspect. Victims are usually the source of information while witnesses, informants, and members of the police department are consulted less often; However, they are likely to produce useful information Using Technology 1) Police departments use advanced technology in all aspects of their operations 2) Investigators are starting to use advanced technology to streamline and enhance the investigative process. 3) Coplink: Enables investigators to compare evidence found at the crime scene with material collected from similar crimes by other police agencies. Compiles information from different jurisdictions into a single database that detectives can access when working investigations. Community Policing CommunityOriented Policing (COP): programs designed to bring police and public closer together and create a more cooperative environment between them. Three key components of communityoriented policing: (1) community partnership, (2) organizational transformation, and (3) problem solving. The Challenges of Community Policing 1) Defining community 2) Defining roles 3) Changing supervisor attitudes 4) Reoriented police values 5) Revising training 6) Reorienting recruitment 7) Reaching out to every community ProblemOriented Policing (POP): a style of police management that stresses proactive problem solving instead of reactive crime fighting. The Displacement Problem Offender motivation: what drives offenders to break the law Crime opportunity: the opportunity the offender has to offend Offender familiarity: offenders don’t like to step out of their comfort zone Five types of displacement: 1) Temporal: offenders change the times at which they offend 2) Spatial: offenders offend in different locations 3) Target: offenders choose different targets 4) Tactical: offenders use different methods to accomplish their objectives 5) Offense: offenders switch to different crime types Improving Police Productivity Consolidation Informal arrangements Sharing Pooling Contracting Service districts Civilian employees Multiple tasking Special assignments Differential police responses
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