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CRJ 101 Chapter 6 Notes

by: Andrea Smith

CRJ 101 Chapter 6 Notes CRJ 101

Andrea Smith
Midlands Technical College

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These are the notes from chapter 6 of intro to criminal justice. The chapter covers The Police: Organization, Role, and Function.
Introduction to Criminal Justice
John B. Tucker
Class Notes
Criminal Justice, police
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrea Smith on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRJ 101 at Midlands Technical College taught by John B. Tucker in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Criminal Justice in Business and Public Service at Midlands Technical College.

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Date Created: 10/04/16
CRJ 101                   Intro to Criminal Justice Chapter 6         The Police: Organization, Role, and Function  Learning Objectives 1) Explain the organization of police departments. 2) Differentiate between the patrol function and the investigation function. 3) Discuss various efforts to improve patrol. 4) Discuss key issues associated with the investigative function. 5) Explain the concept of community policing. 6) List several challenges associated with community policing. 7) Discuss the concept of problem­oriented policing. 8) Define intelligence­led policing and explain ways in which it occurs. 9) Explain the various police support functions. 10) Identify some of the cost­saving measures that may be employed to improve productivity.  Key Terms  Time­in­Rank System: the promotion system in which a police officer can advance in a rank  only after spending a prescribed amount of time in the preceding rank.  Beats: designated police patrol areas.  Order Maintenance (Peacekeeping): maintaining order and authority without the need for  formal arrest—keeping things under control by means of threats, persuasion, and  understanding.  Proactive Policing: an aggressive law enforcement style in which patrol officers take the  initiative against crime instead of waiting for criminal acts to occur.   Broken Windows Model: the role of the police as maintainers of community order and safety.  Procedural Justice: a concern with making decisions that are arrived at trough procedures  viewed as fair.  Vice Squads: police units assigned to enforce morality­based laws, such as those addressing  prostitution, gambling, and pornography.  Sting Operation: organized groups of detectives who deceive criminals into openly  committing illegal acts or conspiring to engage in criminal activity.  Community­Oriented Policing (COP): programs designed to bring police and public closer  together and create a more cooperative environment between them.  Foot Patrol: police patrol that takes officers out of cars and puts them on a walking beat to  strengthen ties with the community.  Problem­Oriented Policing (POP): a style of police management that stresses proactive  problem solving instead of reactive crime fighting.  Hot Spots of Crime: the relatively few locations from which a significant portion of police  calls typically originate in metropolitan areas.  Displacement: an effect that occurs when criminals move from an area targeted for increased  police presence to another that is less well protected.  Intelligence­Led Policing (ILP): the collection and analysis of information to generate an  “intelligence end product” designed to inform police decision making at both the tactical and  the strategic level.  Tactical Intelligence: gaining or developing information related to threats of terrorism or  crime and using this information to apprehend offenders, harden targets, and use strategies  that will eliminate or mitigate the threat  Strategic Intelligence: information about the changing nature of certain problems and threats  for the purpose of developing response strategies and reallocating resources.   National Criminal Intelligence Sharing Plan (NCISP): a formal intelligence­sharing initiative  that identifies the security and intelligence­sharing needs recognized in the wake of the 9/11  terrorist attacks.  Fusion Centers: a mechanism to exchange information and intelligence, maximize resources,  streamline operations, and improve the ability to fight crime and terrorism by analyzing daya  from a variety of sources.  Internal Affairs: the police unit that investigates allegations of police misconduct.  Police Productivity: the amount of order maintenance, crime control, and other law  enforcement activities provided by individual police officers and concomitantly by police  departments as a whole.  Notes  The Police Organization­ a majority of departments are organized in a hierarchical manner.  Each element of the department has its own chain of command and rank system.  New York’s rank from lowest to highest: police officer, detective specialist, detective investigator, sergeant (symbol of rank: 3 chevrons), lieutenant (symbol of rank: 1  gold bar), captain (2 gold bars), deputy inspector (gold oak leaf), inspector (gold  eagle), deputy chief (1 gold star), assistant chief (2 gold stars), bureau chief (3 gold  stars), chief of department (4 gold stars), deputy commissioner (3 gold stars), first  deputy commissioner (4 gold stars), police commissioner (5 gold stars).  The Patrol Function­ uniformed patrol officers are the backbone of the police department  (two­thirds of a department’s personnel.) Majority purposes:  Deter crime by maintaining a visible police presence  Maintain public order within the patrol area  Enable the police department to respond quickly to law violations or other  emergencies  Identify and apprehend law violators  Aid individuals and care for those who cannot help themselves  Facilitate the movement of traffic and people  Create a feeling of security in the community.  Bulk of patrol effort is devoted to order maintenance or peacekeeping.  Improving Patrol  Aggressive patrol­ use proactive policing to help reduce crime rates. Can include  increased targeting of specific offenses, more arrests or citations for specific offenses  or infractions, or a combination of each. Can also have the added benefit of reducing  more serious crimes.  Broken Windows Policing­ Three key points: neighborhood disorder creates fear,  neighborhoods give out crime­promoting signals, police need to aggressively target  low­level “quality of life” crimes. Controversial but effective.  Rapid Response­ criminals can be caught if the police can simply get to the scene of  the crime quickly.   Procedural Justice­ patrol can be more effective when police pay attention to how  they treat citizens. (police being respectful=citizens satisfied with experience and  police decisions)   Use of Technology­ police departments rely on technology to help guide patrol  efforts. CompStat: began in NYC; computerized system that gave the local precinct  commanders up­to­date information about where and when crime was occurring in  their jurisdiction. Improving Patrol Strategy Tactic Goal Aggressive patrol Enforce law vigorously Give message that crime will  not be tolerated Broken windows policing Target low­level offences and  Prevent serious crime incivilities  Rapid response  Respond to 911 calls quickly Increase odds of catching  lawbreakers Procedural justice Treat citizens with dignity and  Increase chances of citizens  respect helping police fight crime, such  as by calling officers Use of technology Employ latest communication  Identify criminals and target  and mapping technologies  crimes efficiently  Investigative Function  How Do Detectives Detect? 1) Specific Focus: detectives interview witnesses, gather evidence, record  events, and collect facts that are available at the immediate crime scene. 2) General Coverage: detective who (a) canvass the neighborhood and make  observations; (b) conduct interviews with friends, families, and associates;  (c) contact coworkers or employers for information regarding victims and  suspects; and (d) construct victim/suspect timelines to outline their  whereabouts before the incident. 3) Informative Data Gathering: detectives use modern technology to collect  records of cell phones and pagers, computer hard drives (tablets, laptops,  notebooks, desktops, and servers), diaries, notes, and documents. The  information includes the data used by persons of interest in the investigation  that tell about their lives, interactions with others, and geographical  connections.  Sting Operations 1) Organized groups of detectives who deceive criminals into openly  committing illegal acts of conspiring to engage in criminal activity  Undercover Work 1) Detectives can go undercover to investigate a crime. 2) Is considered a necessary element of police work. However, it’s dangerous  and can have negative effects on their physical and psychological state. 3) Police officers may be forced to engage in illegal or immoral behavior to  maintain their cover  Evaluating Investigations  Improving Investigations 1) Unsolved Cases 2) Length of Investigation: most cases are investigated for no more than 4 hours stretching over 3 days. An average of 11 days elapse between the initial  report of the crime and the suspension of the investigation. 3) Sources of Information: focus is on victim then shifts to the suspect. Victims  are usually the source of information while witnesses, informants, and  members of the police department are consulted less often; However, they  are likely to produce useful information  Using Technology 1) Police departments use advanced technology in all aspects of their operations 2) Investigators are starting to use advanced technology to streamline and  enhance the investigative process. 3) Coplink: Enables investigators to compare evidence found at the crime scene  with material collected from similar crimes by other police agencies.  Compiles information from different jurisdictions into a single database that  detectives can access when working investigations.  Community Policing  Community­Oriented Policing (COP): programs designed to bring police and public  closer together and create a more cooperative environment between them.   Three key components of community­oriented policing: (1) community partnership,  (2) organizational transformation, and (3) problem solving.  The Challenges of Community Policing 1) Defining community 2) Defining roles 3) Changing supervisor attitudes 4) Reoriented police values 5) Revising training 6) Reorienting recruitment 7) Reaching out to every community  Problem­Oriented Policing (POP): a style of police management that stresses proactive  problem solving instead of reactive crime fighting.  The Displacement Problem  Offender motivation: what drives offenders to break the law  Crime opportunity: the opportunity the offender has to offend  Offender familiarity: offenders don’t like to step out of their comfort zone  Five types of displacement: 1) Temporal: offenders change the times at which they offend 2) Spatial: offenders offend in different locations 3) Target: offenders choose different targets 4) Tactical: offenders use different methods to accomplish their objectives  5) Offense: offenders switch to different crime types  Improving Police Productivity  Consolidation  Informal arrangements  Sharing  Pooling  Contracting  Service districts   Civilian employees  Multiple tasking   Special assignments  Differential police responses


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