Psyc Week 7 Notes
Psyc Week 7 Notes PSYC 101 001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaeli on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Miki KItchen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Week 7 Notes PSYC 101 Language and Thought Thought and Language grow together Culture would not exist without language o Definitions involve several assumptions o Even early hominids had a protolanguage Symbolic means there is no real connection between a sound and a meaning o Syntax how we arrange our language o Grammar entire set of what we are talking about (words and sentences) Greater complexity of people requires greater language Think about speaking before you do it o Thought develops before language o Language production is associated with Broca’s area o Language comprehension with Wernickie’s area Speech stages o Cooing “Ooo” “Eh” Universal sounds First 6 months o Babbling “Bababa” “Geebo” 56 months Introduce many languages Lose the ability to formulate nonnative sounds o Oneword utterances “No” “More” 12 months Different for many, often a familiar caregiver o Twoword utterances Two words 18 months o Sentence phase Full sentences 2.5 to 3 years o Critical period Lasts until 12 o Case of Genie Locked in a closet for 14 years Took 4 years of language training Activated right hemisphere All humans learn to speak o Suggests there is a genetic key for language o Sociocultural theory Socioeconomic status Social factors Imitation Issue is childdirected speech o Higher pitch o Smaller words o Emotions convey meaning o Universal o Conditioning theory (Skinner) Shaped and reinforced Issue is parents Don’t reinforce grammar and syntax o Nativist theory (Chomsky) Genetically coded language acquisition All have broad capacity to acquire language Universal o Wharf Supeir hypothesis Language creates thought o Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis Language controls how you think o All see that social feedback is necessary o LAD must be triggered by environment Cognitive Psychology o Cognition Acquiring and processing knowledge o Mental representation Structure in the mind that represents an external thing o Thinking How do we interpret both of these things? Concepts o Organizing information Works in a hierarchy Parallel distributive process Causal inferences o A causes B o Deductive reasoning Specific o Confirmation bias Cherry picking evidence Only accept information that confirms bias Impedes critical thought Metacognitive thinking o Thinking about thinking o Think and reflect on what you were thinking about Intelligence, Problem Solving, Creativity Everyone has their own brand of intelligence o Theoretically, you can increase your intelligence Must be creative Problem solve Critical thinking To problem solve and be intelligence… o Reason through the problem o Be creative Other theories… o Creativity based o Math based o General intelligence IQ Spearman o G factor denotes intelligence o “How intelligent are you” vs. “Are you intelligent?” o Concluded that specific dimensions of intelligence correlate o Believed it was innate Not true Cattel Intelligence o Fluid intelligence Pattern recognition Abstract thinking High people learn after doing things one time Older you are, less you have o Crystallized intelligence Experience based Older you are, more you have Multiple factor of intelligence o IQ score does not measure the unmeasurable o Includes creativity Music, art o One ability will move through to other skills o Three pieces Analytical Judging Creative Problem solving Practical Solving problems frequently and efficiently Mindful of environment Fluid based intelligence Originally 20 Types of intelligence People see little value in most Measuring intelligence o Don’t cater to all types o Traditional measures Stanford Binet Mental age How you interpret your environment Still used (with little revision) William Stern (IQ) Mental age / critical age * 100 Norms for only our cultural norms Wechsler Compares to same age performance groups Koffman shift Kids don’t think the same Functional MRI Delivered many ways Answers many criticisms o Idea is that intelligence is very hard to measure Most creative people score low Based on the assumption that intelligence is variable Problem solving o Convergent thinking Known solutions o Divergent thinking No known solution Come up with something different o Methods Algorithm Step by step procedure Eureka Insight Sudden solution Outside the box thinking Trying something new o Problems with problem solving Fixate Using the same problem solving method Mental sets o Tendency to continue with the familiar Functional fixedness Cognitively lazy o Become averse to thinking outside the box Creativity o Both intelligence and problem solving o Sudden insight and application o Requires mindfulness o Stages of problem solving Prepared Have something to be creative about Need to be mindful Realize you have a problem Incubation Put it aside Think about it and work on something else Insight Solution comes to mind Occur in the right hemisphere o Creative section Elaboration and verification Ask how to make it better Being mindful Increase the ability to reason o Creative people are original and flexible Originality Step out of the box o Try new things o Try new ideas o Geniuses High intelligence Great impact on their field Look for many different solutions Related to creativity