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BSC 114, Chapter 10

by: Hannah Tomlinson

BSC 114, Chapter 10 BSC 114

Hannah Tomlinson

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Principles Of Biology I
Kimberly Caldwell
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Tomlinson on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 114 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Kimberly Caldwell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Principles Of Biology I in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 10/04/16
10/1 Chapter 10: Photosynthesis Photosynthesis  The conversion of solar energy to chemical energy  Performed by plants Autotrophs  They sustain themselves without eating anything derived from other living beings  They produce their organic molecules from CO and2other inorganic raw materials obtained from the environment Photosynthesis  Occurs mostly in the leaves in tissue called mesophyll (tissue in the interior of leaf)  Within the tissue, the subcellular organelle involved is the chloroplast Chloroplasts  About 30 to 40 chloroplasts in each mesophyll cell  Green leaf color is from chlorophyll, the green pigment located withing the chloroplasts  The light energy absorbed by chloroplasts drives the synthesis of food molecules in the chloroplast  CO 2nters a leaf and O e2its through pores called stomata  Stroma: the fluid within the chloroplast  Thylakoid membranes are a system of interconnected membranes that divide the stroma from the thylakoid space  Chlorophyll is located in thylakoid membrane  Grana: when thylakoid are stacked on top of each other Overview of Photosynthesis  2 sets of reactions that cooperate to convert light energy to chemical energy -Light reactions (photo) occur in thylakoid membrane -Calvin cycle (synthesis) occurs in the stroma Light Reactions  Convert solar energy to chemical energy  Light and Water that go into the reaction and generate ATP  NADPH is the electron carrier  Solar power generates ATP (energy) and NADPH (electron carrier)  They shuttle over to the Calvin cycle  All the energy (ATP) is dedicated to powering the Calvin cycle Details of Calvin Cycle  Light is absorbed by chlorophyll and drives the transfer of electrons and hydrogen from water to NADP +  NADP temporarily stores the energized electrons (as NADPH)  Water that splits releases O2 as a byproduct  Photosystems: the light harvesting units of the thylakoid membrane Photosystems in Thylakoid Membranes  Light harvesting units of the thylakoid membrane are like antenna  Each photosystem (there are 2) is complex of proteins and pigment molecules that absorb light (photons)  Transfer energy between molecules to a primary electron acceptor Photosystems I and II Cooperate Together  They have slight differences in light-absorbing properties: Photosystem I and Photosystem II  Light drives the synthesis of NADPH and ATP  Energy transformations occur by the flow of electrons through the photosystems Calvin Cycle  Occurs in stroma  Incorporates CO2 from the air into organic molecules  The initial incorporation of carbon into organic compounds is called carbon fixation  The Calvin cycle then uses ATP and NADPH (generated form light reaction) to produce sugar Details of Calvin Cycle  Incorporates CO2 by attaching CO2 to a 5-carbon sugar named ribulose biphosphate (RuBP)  Rubisco is the enzyme that catalyzes this reaction  For every 3 molecules of CO2 that enter the cycle, the net output is one molecule of G3P (a 3 carbon sugar named glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate)  For each G3P synthesized, the cycle spends 9 molecules of ATP and 6 of NADPH  The light reactions sustain the Calvin cycle by regenerating ATP and NADPH 3 Phases of Calvin Cycle  Carbon fixation (Carboxylation)  Reduction  Regeneration of RuBP The Calvin Cycle  Carboxylation (Rubisco)  Reduction (ATP and NADPH)  Regeneration of ribulose 1, 5-biphosphate Why Do Plants Need Mitochondria?  Not all cells in plants are autotrophic  Rest of plant requires organic molecules that get transported from leaves via veins  In non-photosynthetic cells the sugars are source of raw material for cellular respiration  Anabolic synthesis of proteins, lipids, cellulose  About 50% of all organics made by photosynthesis is used for cellular respiration


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